The Making of Modern Britain 4- Foreign Affairs

Who were Britain in the shadow of after WW2?
The two major superpowers, USA and USSR.
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in 1947, what did the British Ambassor have to inform the United states about?
Britain faced bankruptcy and would have to withdraw from commitments in Greece, Turkey and Palestine.
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Who gained independance in the same year from Britain?
India and Pakistan, marking the start of Britain's 'withdraw from the Empire'.
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What did Dean Acheson, US secutary of state between 1949 and 1953, say about Britain?
'Britain had lost an empire and has not yet found a role'.
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What was the Atlantic Alliance?
a term used to refer to NATO.
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What is a superpower?
An extremely power country with influence on other nations.
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What did the Schuman Plan of 1950 set out to achieve?
Proposals for the Coal and Steel Community that would integrate French and German steel in order to promote rapid economic construction. Made sure that n new wars broke out.
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What was this the foundations of?
The EEC (European Economic Council)
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Who supported the scheme?
Britain and the United States. Seen as an important contribution to the security of Europe.
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Name the reasons why Britain didnt intially get involved?
Few polticians wanted to get involved with Europe, some wanted to keep tabs on the links with Australia and New Zealand, assumption that Britain was still a world power, wnted to maintain special relationship.
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Where did the EEC take shape?
International conference at Messina, Sicily, in 1955.
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How was Britain involved with these agreements?
A representative was there but only to observe.
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What did the agreements form?
The Treat of Rome, which launched the EEC in 1957.
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Which countries signed the Treaty of Rome?
France, West Germany, The Netherlands, Belguim, Italy and Luxembourg
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Which countries dominated the EEC?
France and Germany.
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What did French president Charles De Gaulle (from 1958) want to proetct the EEC from?
'Les Anglo-Saxons' (Britain, and through Britain, the influene of the United States.
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How did Britain feel about the EEC?
Wanted to join. Attitudes started to shift.
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What did Britain take the lead in developing in 1959?
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
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Which countries were involved in this?
Britain, Austria, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland.
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What did it create?
A free trade area.
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What was the outcome of the EFTA?
Not nearly as successful as the EEC. Could not match the economic growth of the EEC..
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What did the Macmillan government do in 1961 as a result of this?
Sent an application to join the EEC.
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Name reasons why Britain changed it's minds.
Boost industrial production for export, increasing industrial efficiency, and to stimulate economic growth.
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Why were the USA keen for Britain to join the EEC?
Startegic reasons, saw Britain as the vital link between Europe and America.
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What did Britain want to keep as well as joining the EEC?
To keep it's position in two other world affairs: the Commonwealth and the United states.
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How did this make negotiations difficult for Britain joining the EEC?
EEC had already developed economic structures e.g. the Common Agricultural Policy, something which Britain wpuld find hard to conform with.
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Who was Macmillan chief negotiator through the EEC negotiations?
Edward Heath.
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Give an example of trade liks which would be blocked by the EEC rules?
Lamb exports from New Zealand.
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What did Charles de Gaulle do at the very last minute of Britain's application to the EEC?
Uses France's right of veto and blocked Britain's application.
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What were British relations with the USA and the USSR dominated by?
The early years of the Cold War.
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What were the USA, USSR and Britain during WW2?
Allies. Fighting against Germany.
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What happened to post-war relations?
Britain and the USA stayed allies, opposed the expansion of communism across Europe.
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What did Britain become in order to combat the growth of communism?
Founder of NATO in 1949, along with France and USA, troops staioned in W. Germany.
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What did Britain support the United Nations in?
Korean War.
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What was Harold Macmillan involved in in 1960?
A summit conference with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
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WHo did he establsih a good relationship with?
President Eisenhower, and his successor John F Kennedy.
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An example of the good relationship between Macmillan and Kennedy.
Kennedy keeping Macmillan infomred about the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
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What was the Cuban Missile Crisis 1963?
Cuba (communist) was requested by the USSR to store nuclear weapons. USA were scred, as Cuba is only 90 miles away, set up a blockade to stop Soviet ships. tense negotiatioons resulted in the USSR withdrawing from Cuba and the USA from Italy.
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What did British chancellor Peter Thorneycroft describe Britain as through the Cuban Missile Crisis?
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But from this, what did this mean for British foreing policy?
Britain remained at the top table.
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But how was the special relationship made tense at points?
Through the Burgess and Maclean Affair, the EEC and the Suez Crisis.
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What was the Burgess and Maclean Affair?
Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, highly placed officers in British intelligence. Defected to the Soviet Union in 1951 . British spies had been leaking vital information to Moscow, which worried USA. Less ready to share nuclear secrets with Britain.
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How were Britain dependant upon USA?
Britain was military overstretched, dependant on US power.
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How was this proved?
When Britain started to make an independant nuclear deterrant.
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By 1957, what could Britain do with help from the USA?
managed to test a megaton thermonuclear bomb which was 75 x more powerful than the atomic bomb five years earlier.
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How was the economy by this point?
The strain was considerable.
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What did Ernest Bevin say about the development of a nuclear missile?
'We've got to put the bloody Union Jack on top of it'.
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When was Britain's 'H' bomb tested?
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What did the concerns over the nuclear weapon led to in 1958?
the formation of CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament)
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How popular were the CND?
They were extremely popular, most powerful pressure group in Britain.
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What did CND want?
Wanted Britain to reject nuclear weapons, follow a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament.
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What happened at Aldermaston, Berkshire, in 1958?
Around 8000 took part in demonstration at the weapon's research base.
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What happened a year later?
A second march Aldermaston, it was even bigger.
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What did Macmillan allowed the US to do ?
station 60 IRBMs in Britain and the US began to share nuclear technology under the Mutual Defence Agreement.
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What did this led Britain to do in 1960?
Abandon it's own blue streak missile and develop American Polaris weapons system.
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What happened to the country of Korea?
Previously ruled by Japan, but taken over by the Soviet Union in the North, and USA in the south.
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What did this mean for the governments?
Two separate governments were set up, each one claiming to be legitimate.
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What happened in 1950?
forces from North Korea, supported by the USSR and China, invaded the south.
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What did the UN do about the invasion?
Condemned it, and sent UN forces to combat the invasion.
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How many countries supplied troops to Korea?
20 countries.
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How many troops did Britain supply?
90,000, the second largest behind USA.
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What was the result of the Korean war?
Heavy fighting, ceasefire in 1953, over 1000 British troops had died.
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What was decided as a result of the war?
Korea would be split into two, North Korea communist nad non-communist South Korea.
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Why was the Suez Canal so important for trade?
Suez Canal was a vital route for 80% of Western Europe's oil imports.
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How was Egyptian independance under Colonal Nassar seen as worrying?
For Britain's strategic interests. Due to this, the US and Britain pulled out of investment in the Aswan Dam in 1956.
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In response to the cutting of investment, what did Colonal Nassar do to the canal?
Nationalised the Suez Canal Company to provide finance for the Aswan Dam. Began trading arms with Soviet counties.
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What was Anthony Eden, the British PM, considered as?
An expert in foreign policy, as he had been foreing secutry under Churchill.
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Who was Eden encourgaed by to start war against Nassar?
France and Israel.
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Where did the 3 countries meet to discuss the war plan?
Sevres, Paris.
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Name 4 things as part of the action plan.
Israeli forces would invade Egypt. British and French forces would intervene. Say that the reason for interveninng was to enforce peace upon Egypt. Real reason to take back control of the Suez.
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What was the real war plan?
Britain and France would capture the canal when France approach Israel for military assitance. Israel would then push the Arabs back.
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Who did they hide these details from?
Parliament and the USA.
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What did Eden say about Colonal Nassar?
An evil dictator who could not be allowed to get away with unprovoked aggression.’
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When was the plan put into action?
29th October 1956.
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How did the invasion go?
Not as smoothly as once hoped. Egypt were cloe allies with the USSR who had nuclear weapons capable of hitting London.
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As well as the invasion being a disaster with Britain needing to withdraw, what else did Suez cause?
Political protest in Britain.
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In this political protest, who were against the Suez?
Labour oppossed the conflict, anti-war protests were held and public opinion was split.
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Which other major player were against the intervention?
The USA. Britain was not simply strong enough to stand up to American pressure.
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What happened to Britain as a result?
Plunged into serious financial crisis.
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What did Macmillan realise through this?
Even though he was a supporter, he was one of the first to realise that they needed to pull out.
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What happened to Eden's reputation as a result of the Suez?
Seriouslly and fatally damaged.
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What happened to Britain's reputation?
Britain's position as a world power was being questioned. The fact they couldn't handle the pressure from the US suggest it isnt strong, and it's reputation as a good in the world was also being questioned.
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What happened to Eden?
Resigned early 1957.
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How was Britain's position in the Empire changing?
By 1951, the retreat from the Empire was beginning to happen.
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Name an example of this.
Withdrawel from India in 1947.
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During the 1950's, how did the pressures of colonial independance become difficult to contain?
British forces found themselves fighting against national independance movements from Malaya, Kenya and Cyprus.
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Who esle faced pressures to give independance?
France in Vietnam, and Belguim and Portugal in their African colonies.
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How much did Britain owe it's colonies by the end of the war?
£454 million.
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In the early 50s, what did British rulers believe about the transition from the Empire to the Commonwealth?
That it would be a smooth transition, and these colonial resistance movements until the people were ready for change.
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How did the Mau Mau rebellion change outlooks?
They bgean to change teh pace of decolonialisation.
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What was the Mau Mau rebellion, Kenya, 1945?
A very severe, violent national uprising against British colonial rule after 1945. Struggle to contain the uprising demonstarted the problem with colonial policies. Approx. 13,000 died.
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in 1957, who was the first country to be given independance in the African colonies?
Ghana (Gold Coast)
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Nigeria and Cyprus gained indepedance when?
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What were the implications of colonialism?
Britain paid more in grants and aid than it made in profit, Britain wa dependant upon USA for financial aid.
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How did credible leaders of colonies help decolonialisation?
Leaders such as Nyerere (Tanganyika) helped to quicken the pace of decolonisation.
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What was the shift in British policy signalled by?
Macmillan's 'Winds of Change' in Feb 1960.
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What did it signify about British policy?
The British government knew tht the Empire Days were over, and dramatically speeded up African independance.
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What did the speech bring about attitudes against?
Attitudes against apartheid.
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By 1968, what had Britain given?
Independance to all remaining colonies.
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Card 2


in 1947, what did the British Ambassor have to inform the United states about?


Britain faced bankruptcy and would have to withdraw from commitments in Greece, Turkey and Palestine.

Card 3


Who gained independance in the same year from Britain?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Dean Acheson, US secutary of state between 1949 and 1953, say about Britain?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the Atlantic Alliance?


Preview of the front of card 5
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