The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure (hypertension), which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture. Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include: being overweight or obese dri

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oral cavity
beginning of the digestive process=mas-tication (chewing) "mechanical digestion" -chemical digestion, food mixes with saliva, a enzyme called amylase which breaks down carbohydrates -saliva lubricates and moistems food
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Oesophagus
- Takes food into the stomach by peristalsis -produces mucus to lubricate food -carries vomit back into the mouth
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Stomach
- stores food -mechanical digestion - churns food bt muscular contraction -produces mucus to protect stomach lining from hydrochloric acid
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small intestine (bowl)
- where the majority of digestion takes place -the production of some digestive enzymes -absorbs the nutrience through villi
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Liver
- stores glycogen for balancing blood sugar levels - produces bile -detoxification - filters blood
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gall bladder
- stores bile - it contacts to release bile into the small intestine when fatty acids enter
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pancrease
- produces insulin to maintain blood glucose levels - produces digestive enzymes protease/trypsin= proteine lipase=fats pancreatic amylase= carbohydrates
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Large intestine
- absorbs water - transportation of wast products - produces some vitamins
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Absorption in small intestine
The villi (small finger like projections) with micro villi (hair like) together increase the intestinal absorptive surface area to around the area of a tennis court. Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars which are taken up by the
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Coeliac Disease - causes
an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue Coeliac disease isn't an allergy or intolerance to gluten The immune system mistakes substances found inside gluten as a threat to the body and attacks them This dam
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Effects/symptoms of coeliac disease
Can be mild or server mild abdominal (stomach) pain anemia (tiredness, breathlessness and an irregular heartbeat, caused by a lack of iron in the blood) loss of appetite Villi flattened= Mal-absorption =weight loss vomiting (usually only affects chi
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Diagnosis of coeliac disease
Screening for coeliac disease involves a two stage process: Blood tests – If coeliac disease antibodies are found in your blood, your GP will refer you for a biopsy of your gut. A (endoscopy) biopsy – A biopsy can help confirm a diagnosis of coelia
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Treatment for coeliac disease
There is no cure for coeliac disease, but switching to a gluten-free diet should help control symptoms and prevent long term consequences of the disease. - Vaccinations (e.g. Flu) and supplements (vitamins and minerals) can also be used if
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Functions of the cardiovascular system
•Heart – to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated •Vascular system – to ensure oxygenated blood is transported to where it is needed.
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blood vessels
•Arteries – transport blood away from the heart •Veins – transport blood towards the heart •Capillaries – exchange surface for gases and nutrients
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Differences between arteries and veins
•Direction of blood flow (towards/away) •Pressure (high/low) •Valves (presence/absence) •Oxygenation of blood (oxygenated/deoxygenated) •Pulse (yes/no) •Thickness of walls (thick/thinner)
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Functions of blood
•Transports gases •Transports nutrients •Removes wastes •Fights infection •Maintains body temperature •Maintains homeostasis
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Blood structure and function
•Fluid – plasma •Cells –Red blood cells (erythrocytes –White blood cells –platelets
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Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
•Contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen in the lungs. •Transports oxygen around the body and releases it to the tissues.
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platelets
Tiny disc shaped cells •Prevent excessive bleeding •By forming clots
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White blood cells (leucocytes)
•Defend the body against bacteria, viruses and fungi. •3 main types, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes.
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Monocyte
Defend the body against BACTERIAL infections
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granulocytes
•Fight bacterial and fungal infections •rapidly increase in number •Engulf and destroy bacteria •Die forming pus •ingested by monocytes
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lymphocytes
•2 types called T cells and B cells. •T cells kill virus infected cells and cancer cells. •B cells make antibodies. •Antibodies bind to pathogens and prevent them from doing damage to the body
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Functions of the cardiovascular system
•Heart – to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated •Vascular system – to ensure oxygenated blood is transported to where it is needed.
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P, QRS, T
•P wave – contraction of the atria •QRS waves - contraction of ventricles •T wave – relaxation of the ventricles
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Coronary artery disease
Plaques form in the walls of arteries •The plaques split open •Causes blood to clot (a thrombus) •Thrombus blocks the artery
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Causes of artery disease
•multifactorial •Poor diet •Alcohol and smoking •Stress and lack of exercise •hypertension •Hereditary conditions
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Causes of a stroke
age – you are more likely to have a stroke if you are over 65 years old, although about a quarter of strokes happen in younger people family history – if a close relative (parent, grandparent, brother or sister) has had a stroke, your risk is likely
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Ischaemic strokes (clot) 80%
Causes · smoking – sticky blood and less elastic high blood pressure (hypertension) obesity high cholesterol levels a family history of heart disease or diabetes excessive alcohol intake atrial fibrillation, blood not moved around the body
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Haemorrhagic strokes (bleed)
The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure (hypertension), which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture. Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include: being overweight or obese
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Oesophagus

Back

- Takes food into the stomach by peristalsis -produces mucus to lubricate food -carries vomit back into the mouth

Card 3

Front

Stomach

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

small intestine (bowl)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Liver

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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