The Liver

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Where does the two types of blood brought to the liver mix?
Hepatic sinuoids
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What is a digestive fluid made by hepatocytes that breaks down fats called?
Bile
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What is specialised in breaking down and recycling red blood cells?
Specialised macrophages
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What is produced in the break down of RBC?
Bilirubin, which is the brown pigment in faeces
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What group means that amino acids cannot be stored? And why?
Amine group (NH2), as they become toxic in high concentrations
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What two blood vessels bring blood into the liver?
A branch of the hepatic portal vein and a branch of the hepatic artery
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What are the 2 stages to breakdown amino acids called?
Deamination and the ornithine cycle
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Where does deamination take place?
Cytoplasm of the hepatocytes
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What is formed when the amine group is removed from the original amino acid? And what does it do?
Keto acid, it is converted to carbohydrates or fats for respiration
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What is the amine group converted into? And by which cycle?
It is firstly converted into ammonia which then joins the ornithine cycle to produce urea
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What stages take place in the ornithine cycle?
Ornithine is combined with NH3 & CO2 to make citrulline and give off a by product of H2O. Then citrulline also combines with NH3 & CO2 to the produce arginine & a by product of H2O. Then arginine reacts with H2O to form urea
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How does detoxification take place?
Drugs are broken down by the smooth ER by specific enzymes of hepatocyctes
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How is ethanol broken down?
Ethanol dehydrogenase & oxidised NAD ethanol is converted into ethanal, giving you a by-product of red. NAD. Then ethanal dehydrogenase & oxidised NAD convert ethanal into acetate. Then acetate combines with CoA & moves into the Krebs cycle
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What does P450 enzymes breakdown & where are they most concentrated?
These breakdown toxic molecules (E.g. cocaine). These are most concentrated in the ER of hepatocytes
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Why do people have different side effects to drugs?
As a result of variation of their P450 enzymes, or they have built up a tolerance to the drug due to overuse
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Card 2

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What is a digestive fluid made by hepatocytes that breaks down fats called?

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Bile

Card 3

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What is specialised in breaking down and recycling red blood cells?

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Card 4

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What is produced in the break down of RBC?

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Card 5

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What group means that amino acids cannot be stored? And why?

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