The Kidney

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  • Created by: gec114
  • Created on: 22-04-16 00:06
Kidney Functions
removal of metabolic waste; regulation of water, inorganic ions and acid balance; production of hormones and enzymes; removal of foreign chemicals.
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Renal Corpuscle
filters through three layers - capillary endothelium, basal lamina, layer of podocytes. Two sets of arterioles on either end have changeable lumen diameters.Filtrate ends up in Bowmans space and into proximal tubule.
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Juxtaglomerular apparatus
secrete renin when arterial pressure is low. leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption, increased angiotension, vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure.
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Pcg and GFR
Glomerular filtration pressure, is varied by changes in the qrtery sizes. contractions before the bowmans space or dilation afterwards decreases pressure and the glomerular iltration rate.
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Clearance of a substance
Clearance of S = [(urine concentration of S) x(urine volume per unit time) / Plasma concentration of S
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Sodium reabsorption
more than 99%. mainly happens in the proximal tubule. Na+ reabsorption is an active process. Na+ is pumped out of the cell into the interstitial fluid along the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
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aquaporins
make the epithelium water permeable
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Water
Water is reabsorbed by osmosis so depends on Na+ reabsorption.Water diffuses out of the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
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Vasa Recta
run in parallel to the loops of henle and medullary collecting ducts. The arrangement minimises the loss of solute from the interstitium and allow reabsorption.
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Urea recycling
makes the medulla more hyperosmotic. Urea diffuses into the bottom of the loop of henle, reabsorbed into the medulla. 5% is transported to the vasa recta and the rest remains in the interstitial fluid making it hyperosmotic. the cycle repeats
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Path traveled through the Nephron
Renal Corpuscle ->Proximal tubule ->loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephron and vasa recta ->Rest of the juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons accompanying peritubular capillaries ->Distal tubule, cortical and medullary collecting ducts
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Renal Corpuscle
filters plasma, creates ultrafiltrate
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Proximal tubule
bulk reabsoption of water and solutes, secreting of solutes
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loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephron and vasa recta
generates an osmotic gradient in renal medulla for water reabsorption.
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Rest of the juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons accompanying peritubular capillaries
reabsorption and secretion of substances
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Distal tubule, cortical and medullary collecting ducts
fine tuning reabsorption of water and urea under physiological control.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

filters through three layers - capillary endothelium, basal lamina, layer of podocytes. Two sets of arterioles on either end have changeable lumen diameters.Filtrate ends up in Bowmans space and into proximal tubule.

Back

Renal Corpuscle

Card 3

Front

secrete renin when arterial pressure is low. leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption, increased angiotension, vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Glomerular filtration pressure, is varied by changes in the qrtery sizes. contractions before the bowmans space or dilation afterwards decreases pressure and the glomerular iltration rate.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Clearance of S = [(urine concentration of S) x(urine volume per unit time) / Plasma concentration of S

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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