THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

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  • Created by: abbiemegg
  • Created on: 06-02-16 19:55
Drainage Basin
(Open systems) Area surrounding the river where rain falling onto the land flows into the river.
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Watershed
Boundary of a drainage basin - any precipitation falling beyond he watershed enters a different basin.
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INPUT - Precipitation
All ways the moisture comes out of the atmosphere.
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STORAGE - Interception
Some precipitation lands on vegetation or other structures (eg buildings,concrete/tarmac surfaces) before it reaches the soil. Interception storage is temporary.
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Vegetation storage
Water taken up by the plants (all water contained in plants at any one time.)
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Surface storage
Includes water in puddles (depression storage) ponds and lakes.
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Groundwater storage
Stored in the ground - either in the soil or in rocks (porous)
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Zone of saturation
Zone of rock or soil where all the pores in the soil/rock are full of water.
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Channel storage
Water held in river or stream channel.
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FLOWS AND PROCESSES - Surface run off/overland flow
Water flowing over the land, either over the whole surface or in little channels. Common in arid areas.
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Throughfall
Water dripping from one leaf/plant to another.
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Stem flow
Water running down a plant stem or tree trunk.
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Throughflow
Water moving slowly downhill through the soil. Its faster through "pipes" (soil cracks or animal burrows)
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Infiltration
Water soaking into the soil.
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Infiltration rates
Dependent on soil moisture, type and structure.
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Percolation -
Water seeping down through the soil into the water table.
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Groundwater flow
Water flowing slowly below the water table through permeable rock.
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Baseflow
Groundwater flow that feeds into rivers through river banks and river beds.
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Interflow
Water flowing downhill through permeable rock above the water table.
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Channel flow/River discharge
Water flowing in the river or stream itself.
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OUTPUTS - Evaporation
Water turning into water vapor (liquid to gas)
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Transpiration
Evaporation from plant leaves (take up water through roots and transport it to the leaves where it evaporates)
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Evapotranspration
Process of evaporation and transpiration together....
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Potentional Evapotranspiration
Amount of water that could be evaporated.
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Actual evapotraspiration
Is the amount that actually gets evaporated.
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River discharge/river flow
Another output
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Deficit
Water shortage in the warmer months.
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Water surplus
Precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration in the wetter months.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Boundary of a drainage basin - any precipitation falling beyond he watershed enters a different basin.

Back

Watershed

Card 3

Front

All ways the moisture comes out of the atmosphere.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Some precipitation lands on vegetation or other structures (eg buildings,concrete/tarmac surfaces) before it reaches the soil. Interception storage is temporary.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Water taken up by the plants (all water contained in plants at any one time.)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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