The Gulf War

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  • Created by: katewells
  • Created on: 11-05-16 22:16
When did Saddam Hussein order the invasion of Kuwait?
2nd August 1990
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How many troops and tanks were the Iraqi forces made up of?
100,000 troops and 300 tanks
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What was the outcome of Iraq's invasion?
They crushed the 16,000 Kuwait army and gained control as well as the leader of Kuwait Sheik Jaber Al Sabah with his family escaped to Saudi Arabi
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Who was Iraq immediately condemned by as a result of their invasion?
The Arab League and the United Nations
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What did the UN impose on Saddam?
Economic sanctions
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Who feared it would be the next victim of Iraqi aggression and what did they do?
Saudi Arabia and they appealed to the US for military assistance
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What were Saddam's 5 reasons for his actions?
Historic claim, economic factors, Leadership, Domestic position and USA
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Why did Saddam think he had Historic claim to Kuwait?
Because in the 19th century Kuwait had been part of the Turkish empires province of Basra which is part of Iraq
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Which other 2 powers insisted that they had historical claim to Kuwait?
King Ghazi and Qassem
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When did Britain take responsibility to Kuwait?
1899 to 1922
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What boarder did Britain help establish?
The boundaries between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
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Why did Britain influence anger Iraqi leaders?
They believed that the existence of Kuwait was due to imperialists meddling in Arab affairs
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During the Iran-Iraq war was did Saddam receive from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait?
Loans of $40 billion
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How did Saddam deal with debt post war?
He asked Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to write odd loans to Iraq on the grounds that he halted the Iranian revolution which directly benefited both countries
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Why was Saddam annoyed that Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had increased their oil production?
It brought the international price of oil down and reduced Iraq oil revenues to $89 billion between 1981 and 1990
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What did Saddam ask Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to do?
Bring in line their oil quotas fixed by the OPEC (they refused)
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What did Saddam claim Kuwait was doing?
Illegally extracting Iraqi oil from the Ramalia oil field by slant drilling
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What did Saddam say the value of the 'stolen oil' was?
$2.4 billion
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What would happen if Iraq successfully invaded Kuwait?
He would acquire large amounts of oil wealth and 120 miles of Gulf coastline
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If Saddam invaded Kuwait successfully who else who he have access to?
Saudi Arabia in a southerly western direction that he had failed to achieve in an easterly direction against Iran
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Why was Saddam scared about people seeing through his propaganda?
They were suffering from an economic upheaval leading to inflation
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What did Iran still possess that was Iraq's?
Prisoners of the war
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What did the demobilised troops in Iran do?
Joined the ranks of the unemployed
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How many assassination attempts did Saddam face?
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What way did Saddam feel he was going to be able to secure his rule?
By restoring Kuwait to Iraq
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What did Saddam want the US to do in any move he made towards Kuwait?
Stay neutral
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What type of signals did Washington project towards their view of the nature of Saddam's reign?
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What was the difference between Congress and President Bush views on Saddam's regime?
Congress wanted sanctions and Bush and his advisors opposed these measures
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Which US ambassador did Saddam invite to Baghdad?
April Glaspie
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When did Saddam invite Glaspie to Baghdad?
25th July 1990
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What impression did Glaspie give to Saddam about their views towards his regime?
That US were not concerned over the matter in Kuwait
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What did Saddam think about Glaspie's impression?
He was able to invade Kuwait without being opposed
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What were the 3 operations of the first gulf war?
Desert shield, Desert storm (air and gound)
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When was Desert shield?
7th August 1990-17th January 1991
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What was Iraq's response to Desert shield?
After the invasions there was no fighting for 5 months
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What happened during the 5 months of no fighting in Iraq at the time of Desert shield?
There was a build up of British, French and US troops in Saudi Arabia
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What 3 resolutions did the UN pass during Desert shield?
1)Demand for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait 2)Imposed economic sanctions 3)Set a deadline for withdrawal pending military action
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When was Desert storm (air)?
17th January 1991-23rd February 1991
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What was Iraq 3 responses to Desert storm (air)?
1)Launched SCUD missiles on Israel, they wanted them to retaliate 2)Blew up Kuwaiti oil wells and millions of gallons of crude oil leaked into the Persian Gulf 3)Brief invasion of Khaji in Saudi Arabia
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What were 2 international responses to Desert storm (air)?
1)Coalition planes and helicopters attacked Iraqi military targets in Kuwait and Iraq 2)Drove Iraqi force out of Khaji
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When was Desert storm (ground)?
24th-28th February 1991
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What was Iraq's response to Desert storm (ground)?
100,00 troops were killed by the Coalition bombing of the highway of death
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What was the international response to Desert storm (ground)?
Coalition forces invaded Iraq and Kuwait forcing Saddam to order a Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait
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How many tanks and armoured vehicles did the US destroy at the Battle of Medina Ridge in Basra?
186 tanks and 127 armoured vehicles
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When did President Bush announce a ceasefire and declared Kuwait was free from Iraqi occupation?
28th February 1991
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How did Saddam suffer a huge military defeat?
His forces had been defeated within 100 hours of invasion in Kuwait
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What were the consequences of coalition air attacks?
Iraq's infrastructure was destroyed
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How many civilian and combat casualties did Iraq suffer?
100,000 combat and 20,000 civilian
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What were there shortages of as a result of the war?
Food, Medical and Clean water supplies
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Why were there post-war revolts by the Shiites and Kurds?
They tried to exploit the post-war trauma of his government
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What economic sanction did Iraq suffer from?
They were unable to sell oil abroad
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Why did US remain their military presence in Saudi Arabia?
'No fly zones' To prevent Saddam from carrying out further atrocities
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Saddam was a preferred option than to what?
An Islamic revolution
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What was the UN security council resolution 687 towards Saddam?
He had to dismantle non-conventional weapons
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What were peoples views on Saddam after the gulf war?
People questioned whether he should continue or be removed from power
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How many troops and tanks were the Iraqi forces made up of?


100,000 troops and 300 tanks

Card 3


What was the outcome of Iraq's invasion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was Iraq immediately condemned by as a result of their invasion?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did the UN impose on Saddam?


Preview of the front of card 5
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