The genetic code

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 06-04-16 16:56
How is genetic information coded?
It's coded in the sequence of bases in DNA, it's contained in the genes.
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What did experiments show about a polynucleotide strand?
Experiments showed that a polynucleotide strand always had there times the number of bases than the amino acid it coded for.
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What happens if three bases were removed or added to the polynucleotide strand?
The polypeptide chain would be one amino acid shorter or longer.
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What does triplet mean?
Three bases code for one amino acid.
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How many possible codes are there?
There's 64 possible codes but only 20 amino acids are found in proteins.
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What dose punctuated mean?
Three triplet codes do not code for an amino acid. In mRNA these are stop codons which mark the end of a portion to be translated.
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What dose universal mean?
In all known organisms, the same triplet codes for the same amino acids.
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What does non-overlapping mean?
Each nucleotide only belongs to one triplet code, therefore they're distinct triplets.
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What is a codon?
A codon is a triplet of bases in mRNA that codes for a particular amino acid.
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What does DNA contain?
DNA contains the information for making polypeptides/proteins and an RNA version is first made from the DNA.
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What is the RNA in prokaryotes?
In Prokaryotes this RNA is mRNA and directs the synthesis of the polypeptixde.
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What is this RNA in eukaryotes?
In Eukaryotes the RNA has to be processed first.
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Why is the initial RNA version of the code longer than the final mRNA in eukaryotes?
As it contains sequences of bases that have to be removed.
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What are introns?
Introns are the sequences to be removed, these aren't translated to proteins.
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How are introns cut out of pre-mRNA?
Introns are cut out of pre-mRNA using endonucleases.
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What are the sequences left after introns are cut out of pre-mRNA?
The sequences left are exons, these are joined together with ligases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did experiments show about a polynucleotide strand?

Back

Experiments showed that a polynucleotide strand always had there times the number of bases than the amino acid it coded for.

Card 3

Front

What happens if three bases were removed or added to the polynucleotide strand?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does triplet mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many possible codes are there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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