The Five Year Plans 1928 - 1941

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Stalin's admission of Russian economy
100 Years behind West
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His solution
Catch up using three 5 year plans.
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The First 5YP ran between:
1928 - 32
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The Second 5YP ran between:
1933-38
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The Third 5YP ran between:
1938-1941
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Noteworthy effect of the Plans in the 1930s
Urbanisation caused by new opportunities + problems in countryside. Cities trebled population
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Each plan can be observed by its? [3]
Each plan can be observed by its 1) Nature. 2) Successes. 3) Failures.
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The 5 Year Plans were modelled around:
Central Economic Planning.
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This was administered under:
Gosplan - the organisation responsible for economic planning.
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Focus of Plan #1:
Heavy industry
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Examples of heavy industry [4]
Coal, iron, steel, oil.
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Why did Plan #1 focus on heavy industry? [2]
These industries provided a foundation for future economic development / rearm. 2) Russian workforce (mainly peasants) had little industrial exp. = suited to uncomplicated heavy industrial tasks.
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How many success areas in Plan #1?
2
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These were:
Social Mobility + Production.
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How many failure areas in Plan #1?
4
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These were:
Quantity + Quality / Slave labour / Black Market / Living Standards
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Success: Production [2]
Russian economy grew at 14% / year. 2) Output exceeded production under NEP across all 4 indsutries.
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Iron production in 1928:
3.3 M tonnes
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Iron production in 1932:
6.2M tonnes
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Oil production in 1928:
11.7M tonnes
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Oil production in 1932:
21.4M tonnes.
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Social Mobility: Most basic cause of social mobility?
Urbanisation
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Social Mobility was promoted in which two ways? [2]
Job opportunities // Education.
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Job opportunities [2]
Promotions available to Exp. workers // 150,000 Red specialists replaced the bourgeois specialists
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Education [2]
Govt invested in technical education // Workers encouraged to attend courses at UNIS.
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Quantity and Quality: Summary
The plans heavy focus on quantity had a two fold effect. Much of what was produced was useless and pressure to meet targets led to widespread lying.
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Quantity: Targets.
Steel = 71%
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Living Standards]: General summary
Life became more difficult. Longer hours, stricter rules, limited consumer goods and often poor living conditions
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[Living Standards]: Working Hours:
7 day working week / longer working hours
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[Living Standards] Standards in the factories
Lateness, striking and breaking equipment = criminalised
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[Living Standards] Consumer goods:
Scarce, gosplan targeted heavy industry.
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[Living Standards] Industrial towns and their state:
Magnitogorsk: Collection of huts and tents w/out heating or sanitation.
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Black Market: Why did it emerge?
Due to the scarcity of consumer goods.
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What was sold on it and for how much?
Vodka, cigarettes, shoes, food for extortionate prices.
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Slave Labour: Where did much of the slave labour come from?
Dekulakisation.
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How many prisoners built Magnitogorsk?
40,000
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Split of the Second Plan
1933 -36 // 1936 - 38
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Describe how the economy was developed in the first phase?
Rounded
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Consequently, it targeted [5]
New industries, electrification, transport, consumer goods, heavy industry
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What else did it target?
Labour productivity
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Key reason for the change of focus:
The Kirov group pressured Stalin to prioritise living standards + consumer goods arguing it would increase the party's popularity.
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Economic reasons for change in nature [2]
Plan#1 produced a vast quantity of raw materials which went unused as there was no method of transporting them.
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...
....Plan #1 had produced a generation of workers who were able to perform complex industrial tasks.
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In 1936 the Plan's focus changed:
Consumer goods gave way for rearmament.
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Why? [2]
Germany were rearming // Kirov had been assassinated in 1934 and his followers purged in the GT.
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Successes of Plan#2? [5]
Consumer goods, heavy industry, transport, rearmament, labour productivity
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Failures of Plan #2 [4]
Housing, Inequalities, Consumer Goods, Quantity and Quality.
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Transport: [2]
Moscow Metro 1935 // Volga Canal 1937
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Heavy industry [2]
Steel output trebled / coal production doubled
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Consumer Goods [2]
Bread rationing ended in 1934. // Spending on consumer goods doubled between 1933 - 37
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Labour productivity:
The Stakhanovite movement increased labour productivity across Russia.
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Rearmament: spending
Spending grew from 4% GDP in 1933 to 17% GDP in 1937.
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Housing [2]
Many new houses lacked basic sanitation // 650,000 in Moscow had no access to a public bathhouse.
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Consumer Goods:
Many russians had a poor diet // New clothing hard to obtain.
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Example of clothing being hard to obtain.
1934: 6,000 queuing outside a Leningrad shoe shop.
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Inequalities: [2]
Senior communists entitled to higher living standards / Stakhanovites entitled to large financial rewards.
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Senior communists got... [3]
...holiday homes, chauffeur driven limos, special consumer goods
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Alexei Stakhanov received [4]
Holiday tickets, a months pay in a day, a telephone, new yard (apartment)
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Quantity and Quality:
Problems of plan 1 continued into Plan 2.
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Focus of Plan #3
Heavy industry and rearmament
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Noteworthy about this plan:
Hampered by the chaos of the GT.
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Successes of Plan #3
Heavy industry // Rearmament // Worker Discipline
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Failures of Plan #3
Administration, Heavy industry, Consumer Goods
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Success: Heavy industry: Oil production in 1937 vs 1940
29M tonnes in 1937 vs 31 M tonnes in 1940.
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Rearmament: [Investment]
Doubled between 1938 - 40
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Rearmament: Further evidence of success:
9 new aircraft factories built in 1939.
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Worker discipline:
Internal passport stopped workers travelling Russia in search of higher paid jobs.
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Failures: What caused a failure in administration [one word]
The Purges
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Who was missed? [2]
Experienced industrial managers and economic planners.
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General failures of admin [2]
Complete plan never published / Execution of plan = chaotic
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Heavy industry: failure:
Removal of exp. industrial managers = stagnation of steel industry.
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What level did steel remain at and this was relative to?
18M tonnes, the same as under Plan 2.
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Consumer Goods [General issue w/ 3+ examples]
Food rationing introduced. Bread, pasta, meat fish, sugar, butter tea, grete, soap
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What significant consumer good was unavailable + effect?
Fridges = difficult to store fresh food.
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1941. People per shop
1 shop per 476 people.
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Industry by 1941. [2]
Russia was now a highly industrialised / urbanised economy.
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Industrial balance by 1941:
While heavy industry boomed, new industries grew slowly and consumer goods remained scarce.
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State of Russian people by 1941:
Poor diet / living standards
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Ultimately, Stalin's plans had...
...laid the foundation for victory at war but at the expense of the living standards of Russian people.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

His solution

Back

Catch up using three 5 year plans.

Card 3

Front

The First 5YP ran between:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The Second 5YP ran between:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Third 5YP ran between:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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