The Five factor model Essay

Who was the FFM proposed by?
Costa and McCrae (1997)
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What is it linked to?
The big 5 presented by Goldberg - he came up with the 5 domains through factor analysis of lots of adjectives
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What is paragraph 1?
Outline of the model
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What is Neuroticism?
Characterised as being emotionally unstable, anxious, fearful, tense, irritable, depressed
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What is extraversion?
characterised by warmth, excitement seeking, stimulation, social, positive emotions
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What is openness?
Characterised by fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas and values
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What is agreeableness?
characterised by trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, tender-mindedness
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What is conscientiousness?
characterised by competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, deliberation
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What is it derived from?
Golderberg, took the same domains and created assumptions about them- a more biological model
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What does this model have?
hierarchical structure, 5 domains at top followed by facets and then behaviours, e.g. N is the domain, anxiety is the facet
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What could this be linked to?
Eysenck (if it’s not a compare question) how he has three factors (E, N, AND Psychoticism) P is made up of A and C in the FFM
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What is paragraph 2?
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How is it measured?
By 5 traits via a questionnaire - contextualised statements
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What is each item designed to ?
Reflect the causal role in behaviour at the facet level (6 facets underlie each of the domains)
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NEO-PI is used for what?
In early days to measure the traits, revised version of it was done by Costa and McCrae (1985) added 40 rating scales
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Digman (1990)
He also created a set of 50 self rating scales (10 for each), which correlated highly with scores of E, N, O in the NEO-PI scale, this shows it has good reliability
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What is paragraph 3?
Biological basis: genetics
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Leohiln et al (1998)
Twin studies used to see the degree of genetics compared to environmental influence of traits
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What was found on average?
Genes accounted for 55% of trait differences, whereas shared environment had no influence and non shared environment was 45%
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What does this show?
There is a heritability between factors
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Jang et al (2002)
How correlation on tested facets of domains were higher for MZ twins compared to DZ twins, suggesting the presence of genetic influences, also showed no influence from shared environment and some non-shared impact
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Terracciano et al (2010)
Looked at genome wide associations with the FFM, N is associated with a region on a gene which is linked to ADHD and psychiatric disorders
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What is E linked to?
A gene associated with neurosensory processing and regulation of the heartbeat - this fits with Eysencks model in which he states E need more arousal and stimulation
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What is Paragraph 4?
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What is the link?
Is a genetic component to traits, these code for proteins and then the brain translates into behaviour- so is some neurobiological basis to traits also
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De young et al (2010)
Structural MRI looking at the regions of the brain associated with behaviours of the 5 traits
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What is N covaried with?
Regions associated with punishment, threat and negative effects - reduced volume of dorsomedial PFC and increased volume of the mid cingulate
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What is E covaried with?
had larger volume in regions of posterior cingulate cortex and reduced volume in superior temporal sulcus- associated with altruism, cooperation and process info about intentions
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What is O associated with?
dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex which linked with working memory
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What is C associated with?
covaried with regions associated in planning and impulse control- lateral PFC • this strong biological evidence and support bio explanation that traits are influences biologically
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Kumari (2004)
• Evidence from Kumari et al. (2004) supports this claim as it shows that an extraverts resting cortical activity to be lower than an introverts
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extroverts have to increase activity more than introverts, as Eysenck suggests
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What is paragraph 5?
Cultural reliability
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Henrich et al (2010)
presented the WEIRD problem whereby a lot of psychological research is tested western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic countries, meaning results aren’t actually as culturally reliable as think
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What percentage of studies are from WEIRD countries?
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What was conducted?
• Gurvenet al.(2013) did first study of personalityin an illiterate community- the Tsimane culture who live in small forager villages in Bolivia. • Found no evidence for the FFM for any trait
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• Suggests low reliability for the FFM • Although study raises concern for FFM, doesn’t mean can’t just dismiss the model- has other good evidence, e.g. the bio evidence
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What is paragraph 7?
FFM and abnormal personality
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Rector et al (2002)
shows how pps with depression showed higher N • This would be expected because N is linked to anxiety and being emotionally unstable
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What could this be?
predictor of depression
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However what?
don’t always get what would predict, would expect these with OCD to have higher C since it is linked with order, compliance, dutifulness, self-discipline- factors enhanced in OCD
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What did Rector find?
No association between these after controlling for depression, goes against the model
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• This may be because however they have very high standards so when completing the items on the self-report questionnaire are responding via their own norms compared to the norms of society
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Card 2


What is it linked to?


The big 5 presented by Goldberg - he came up with the 5 domains through factor analysis of lots of adjectives

Card 3


What is paragraph 1?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Neuroticism?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is extraversion?


Preview of the front of card 5
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