THe First Crusade

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 30-04-18 18:41
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When is Pope Gregory VII's call for action?
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Give one quote from this speech?
"A pagan race had overcome the christians and with horrible cruelty had devastated everything"
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Which religion is described is he describing here as pagan?
Islamic religion
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When was the Council of Clermont held?
18th November 1095 Council of Clermont
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What did the Gesta Francorum suggest was the motive described at the Council?
"Whoever wishes to save his soul should not hesitate humbly to tke up the way of the Lord"
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How many clerics attended from where?
Council of some 300 clerics from all over Europe
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WHy did Clermont call the crusade?
A letter was recieved from the Byzantine Leader Alexius Comnenus asking for military assistance against the Selijuk Turks
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Who was now the dominant force in the East?
Power of Orthodox church slipping, Islam now dominant force- Time had come to assist their felloe Christians in the East
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Who made this speech?
Urban II
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What did Tariq Ali suggest about the power pOpes had?
Popes of that period were politicians, much more so than they are now They were big players, scheming, manipulatung, intriguing- Politicians of the church
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What historians also suggests the crusade satisfies a number of crucial agendas for the pope?
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Who suggests what about Urban and his speech abilities?
-Crawford, Urban must have been a truey charismatic and influential speaker- Emotional intensity high
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What was the response of the people after this speech?
Plans were lost to crowd- Many took vows- WOmen, men, children- A rather chaotic end to the council
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Give an example of how there was such confusion after this speech?
Enormous armies unexpectedly sprang up into being, each with their own leadership.
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I nterms of the attraction of the crusade, what historian suggests this was due to Urban?
Philips, -He marketed it well. Struck cords of knights in Europe as no atonement meant hell
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However, wha did Tariq Ali suggest about motive being religion alone?
Nothing is entirely motivated by religion alone. It was also the promise of riches and centre of trade,
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What is the name of the seperate crusade movement that were the first to take up the cross and leave?
THe People's crusade
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Who is the main said to have recruited this enormous army?
Peter the Hermit
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How many people to soldiers were recruited?
SOme 40,000 men and women but ony around 500 knights
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How long did this people's crusade last?
Roughly 6 months- April to October
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What did the People's crusade do that was the first in Europe History in May 1096?
First progrom in European history
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What is a pogrom/ what did they do?
Mass killing of thousands of Jews- THey were massacred, driven to suicide and forced to convert,
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How many did Aronious estiamte were killed?
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Who estimates between 4,000 and 8,000?
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How many did Flannery estimate were killed?
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What was Pope Urban's plans for the organisation of the crusade?
One Christian army at the head the experienced count Raymond would stand
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However, what was the organisation of the crusade actually like?
There were now three armies, and Peter and several popular armies wre under way
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Who led the four main armies from different western European regions and where?
1_ Provencales- Raymond of Saint Gilles, 2) France- Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Bouillon, 3)Germany- Hugh of Vermandois, 4) Italy-Bohemond of Taranto and Tancred
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When did they depart for COnstantinople and how long was the journey?
August 1096, From Paris to Jerusalem- 2,000 miles
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How many set off and how many arrived?
100,000 set off and 20,000 arrived
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When they arrived, what did Alexius ask leaders to swear?
To swear an oath of loyalty to him and recognise hsi authority over any land regained from the Turks and any other land they might conquer
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How did William of Tyre describe Alexius?
'Emperor Alexius was a wicked and crafty man'- COmpared him to a Scorpion
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Did the leaders take oaths?
All but Bohemond resisted taking the oath
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Who was Anna Comnena and how did she describe Alexius's actions?
Alexius daughters- DIslikes crusaders. She discusses her father's cleverness in manipulating crusaders, such as keeping them separate so they can't confer
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What was Alexius reaction to this mass army of basically farmets?
He was furious and kept his doors closed to the mass- A catholic following army of 60,000 wasn't what he had in mind when he asked for an elite team of mercenaries,
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Which army was massacre at Nicomedia in Octobert 1096?
The People's army
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Once in Asia minor, what did the crusader army do?
They began to pillage towns and villages after being denied access to Constantinople
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Which seljuk stronghold was attacked in May 1097?
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How many was in the army that marched out to Nicaea?
20,000- WOmen and children left behind
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A month into the siege, what did the Byzantine Emperor do?
He initiated secret plans to take the city and spoils for themselves.
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How long did it take for the Byzantines to fly their banner on the ramparts of the city?
The next morning
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What did France say was the crusader's thoughts on Nicea?
Crusaders had expected to keep Nicaea
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What does Philips say in agreement based on their reaction?
Crusader army furious- THey trusted Alexius- Bad sign for their alliance
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What did the crusaders do?
They ventured deeper into enemy territory still towards Jerusalem
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Were they alone?
No- Kilij lost his fortress and wanted revenge with his army of 50,000
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When did this battle take place?
1st July 1097
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Along with distrust of the Byzantines, what was another problem with the crusader's vanguard?
Split into two groups- THe weaker led by Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew ancred and on the other Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Boulonge
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Why did they split?
The Valley- Only 5 men a breadth could pass through. For an army of 60,000, this took around 3 days
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What was Bohemond's poor decision that led to the beginning of this battle?
Bohemond and his vanguard of 20,000 men led to Bohemond camped in land chosen by Kilij for his ambush
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WHo was winning at the beginning of this attack?
Seljuks- THe crusaders were pinned down and wre losing more men.
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Why does Taef el-Azhari suggest was the reason for the Seljuk's success?
New encounter of warfare. Riders were also archers on horseback, and foot soldiers also had leg drawn bow and arrows
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However, what does William of Tyre say happened which changed their fate?
'Other warriors devoted to God sped to the aid of the brethren'
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What did crusader force numbers swell to?
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What was the outcome of the battle?
The Turks fled
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How did the crusaders feel after their success and an example?
They believed they were invincible- Only boldly wrote to his wife they would be at the gate of Jerusalem in just 5 weeks,
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What is the next city that falls to the crusades
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Who decided to take this city for themselves? However, what was the controversy around this move?
-Baldwin, -It was a christian city, not in muslim hands
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How does William of Tyre describe the leader of Edessa at the time?
LEader was 'a feeble old man without a child...unable to protect people of wrongs or of attacks'
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What deal did Balwin make with the leader?
Protection for Edessa in return for the keys to the city when the leader was dead
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However, what inevitably happened?
The leaer was murdered
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How does Asbridge describe this in terms of morality of the crusaders actons?
Not a great moment for the crusaders- Baldwin's mission nto religious but for power
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In agreement, what did Tariq Ali suggest was how crusaders justified this action?
These other christians were seen as christian barbarians from uncivilised lands of the North
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What did Anna Komnena reflect on this move by crusaders?
'Barbarians once they have set their hears on somethinf: there is nothing... which they will not beat when they have made up their minds"
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What was the next city to be sieged and when?
Antioch October 1097-June 1098
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Did all leaders attack?
No- There was rivalry among leaders and clashes for possession of towns. Baldwin takes no part in the siege,
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Why do the crusaders want Antioch?
Strategic- Gateway to Syria and Holy Land, -Spiritually almost equal to Jerusalem, -lost to Turks 1095
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What was the religious stance of Antioch?
Majority were Orthodox CHristians but Turks allowed them the freedom to worship, but this wasn't enough for crusaders
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How many horses do the crusaders have when they begin the siege?
1,000- So already 4/5 knights have no horse
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What does France suggest about the defence of Antioch?
Antioch was well defended- Walls massive and towers intnerlock with one another
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What does Taef el-Azhari suggest about the defence of Antioch?
Leader was praised for his great organisation of defence night and day- Fought vigorously to defend the city
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What Muslim source is used to support Taef el-Azhari's judgement?
Ali ibn Athir- Talks of the leaders 'courage, strength and judgement'
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After an 8 month siege, what was their staus?
They were still no closer to getting in
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Why did they have an extra burden during this siege?
AS th eleader of Antioch expelled the christians from the city due to their questionnable loyalties so also had to feed them
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How does William of Tyre describe the situation at this time?
'Fatal. THere was barely any room to bury the dead'
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2 months later, what was there a danger of?
Christian scouts reported a large muslim army was on the way
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What tipped favour for the crusaders?
Bohemond found a way into Antioch with a traitor- Told of a weak spot in the citu
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How did France describe the crusader's once they entered?
After months of starvation they were in no mood for mercy- Muslims killed indiscriminately
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Who states everyone was massacred from including Christians, Muslims, Jews, women and children?
Taef el-Azhari
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However, what was the new problem once they were in?
Turkish reinforcements arrive- Franks are starving with only 200 horss
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What was discovered in Antioch during their besieging?
The Holy Lance
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How did this crusader know of the location and about the Holy Lance?
A vision from God- St Andrew appeared to him and told him where to find the Holy Lance
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What was this Holy Lance?
The supposed spear in which Jesus Christ was pierced
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What does France suggest about the situaton the crusaders were in?
Despeerate situation so significant he seizes upon the image of a holy lance from God everyone can focus on
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However, how does the Muslim source Ali ibn al-Athir describe this finding of the holy lance?
He describes the cursader as 'an extremely winey monk' and 'went ot bury the lance in the soil below the church, then covered his tracks''
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However, what does Father Besch state aboiut the belief of this?
It is a matter of faith
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What does France say this discovery did for morale?
It recovered morale and fighting will. Mood changes from defeatism to aggresiveness
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Was this the only relic found?
In Antioch yes but Tariqu Ali sates more and more relics were found as the crusade went on
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What did the crusaders do after finding the lance?
Six lines of battle forms created and protect the cross
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What was the outcome?
Muslims saw the force of the crusaders and were much afraid- They were defeated
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What happened to Antioch?
Bohemond ignored the oath he made to the Byzantine Emperor and crowned himself Prince of Antioch
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Why weren't the ordinary people happy?
Squablling leaders meant their plans to take Jerusalem were delayed- Edessa was controlled by Baldwin and Antioch b y Bohemond so both stalled this new march as were already rich
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Who had control of Jerusalem when the crusaders finally arrived at the city gates?
Egyptian hands
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When did they arrive and with how many?
June 1099, -13,000
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How long and how many miles had they travelled to get to their final destination?
3 years and 3000 miles with terrible losses
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How many people lived in the city and their faith?
20,000 inhabitants with a variety of religions- Muslim, Christians and Jews
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How did the crusaders organise themselves in terms of miltiary strategy?
2 siege towers- Raymond and Godfrey- One in the North West wall and the other at the South
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When did the walls finally begin to give way and what help did they get?
14th July- Maybe CHristians in the city as well helped destroy the wall assuming they would beb liberated by crusaders
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When are the walls finally breached and Iftikar surrenders?
July 15th
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Are those Christians spared?
No- Massacre of inhabitants begins.
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In tems of historical debate, who provides the Eastern source perspective and what was this?
Hillenbrand and Kedar- Stressed the shock the event cause throughout the Islamic world,
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Who provides the perspective of Western historians and what was it?
-France, -Contemporary description are inconsistent and misleading, and treatment though brutal fell within norms observed in western warfare
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How did Raymond d'Aguiler's description describe this event?
Blood rising to the height of the horses bridles
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what do reports say about the massacre?
The killings wee horrible- Jews gathered in temples which were burnt, Muslim women and children killed an violated despite promises made,
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What happened to mosques and islamic symbols?
They tore off Islamic symbols and turned the mosque into a christian church
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However, how does ASbridge describe how the crusaders felt about this success?
Believed it was a miracle they had taken JErusalem and achieved their goal- Sign God was on their side
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However, what oes Tariq Ali suggest about the impact it had?
Had a deep imapct on Islamic society- Barbarian invasion still told today
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What is often given as the reason for the crusade's success?
The disunity of the Islamic NEar East
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AS crusaders plotted to consolidate their hold on Jerusalem, what were mUslims doing?
Thye were prepared to strike back- Not long before their force would be unleashed on Jeruslame
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Card 2


When is Pope Gregory VII's call for action?



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Give one quote from this speech?


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Card 4


Which religion is described is he describing here as pagan?


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Card 5


When was the Council of Clermont held?


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