The endocrine system

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  • Created by: Zina_
  • Created on: 26-04-18 17:58
Give an example of positive feedback in child birth
baby stretches against the cervix=nerve impulses to brain=stimulates oxytocin release from the pituitary= uterus contraction
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what is the role of osteoclasts?
when stimulated by parathyroid hormones break down tissue, transferring Ca from bone to the blood
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what is the role of osteoblasts?
repair the damage of osteoclasts
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TRH
thyrotropin releasing hormone
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PRH
prolactin releasing hormone
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PIH
prolactin release-inhibiting hormone
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CRH
carticotropin releasing hormone
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what does oxytocin secretion from posterior pituitary cause?
uterine contractions, milk secretion
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what does ADH(vassopressin) secretion from posterior pituitary cause?
water homeostasis - promotes water uptake in the kidneys
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how does Ca control calcitonin and parathyroid hormone through negative feedback
high Ca=thyroid gland cells release more CT= CT promotes blood Ca into the bone= decreases blood Ca= stimulates release of PTH = PTH promotes Ca release from bone into blood = inc blood Ca = PTH also stimulates calcitriol release from kidneys
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GHRH
growth hormone releasing hormone
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**
somastatin - gh inhibiting hormone
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what are the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
inc plasma Ca+ rebsorption, dec plasma phosphate_reabsorption, inc bone reabsorption, indirectly promotes calcitrol form
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what are the effects of calcitonin (CT)
dec plasma Ca+ reabsorption,dec plasma phosph + reabsorption, dec bone reabsorption
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what are the effects of calcitrol?
inc plasma Ca+reabsorption,inc plasma phosphate+reabsorption, promotes PTH, inc absorption of Ca/phosphate in GI
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how does the hypothalamus pituitary gland commit to the endocrine system
hypothalamus produce trophic hormones= hormones released into circulation from anterior pituitary = hormones act on endocrine cells = endocrine cells secrete hormones= hormones interact with target cells/tissues
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what factors decrease growth hormone secretion?
obesity, light sleep, somatostatin hormone
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what factors increase growth hormone secretion?
dec in glucose, fasting, deep sleep, stress, exercise, GHRH
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what is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
exocrine glands secrete to external organ surfaces using a duct, endocrine secrete directly into bloodstream
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what is the mode of action of an autocrine hormone?
signals can act back on cell of origin/adjacent cells of the same type
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what is the mode of action of a paracrine hormone?
signals to adjacent target cells over short distance through interstitial fluid
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what is the mode of action of an endocrine hormone?
signals carried to distant target cells via bloodstream
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what is the mode of action of a neurocrine hormone?
signals carried to distant target cells originating in neurons, axonal transport
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how do peptide/protein hormones exert their effects?
soluble therefore easily transported, released by endocrine cell= circulate=diffuse out of capillaries when target cell receptors found(GPCR)
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how do lipid soluble hormones exert their effects?
transported with proteins, hormone diffuses into cell=activated hormone-receptor complex alters gene expression=newly formed mRNA synthesises new proteins= new proteins alter cell activity
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what rate factors determine hormone levels?
production,delivery(blood flow to organ), degradation(metabolised/excreted)
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how are glands made?
derived from specialised secretion epithelial cells starting from surface epithelium layer
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what causes gigantism in children?
growth hormone excess
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what causes acromegaly in adults?
growth hormone excess, bones get wider rather than longer
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how does growth hormone exert its affect on cells?
interacts with janus kinase receptors=phosphorylated JK interact with transcription factors = factors bind to DNA regions targeting transcription genes
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what are insulin like GF?
modulate hypertrophy(cell growth), hyperplasia( cell number), protein synthesis rate, glucose uptake
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how are thyroid hormones made from iodine?
iodine converted into iodide to be absorbed into the blood/thyroid gland, converted into thyroid hormones
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how is iodide converted into iodine to allow tyrosine binding
thyroid peroxidase enzyme
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what is goitre?
enlarged throid gland causing hypo/hyper thyroidism
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what is hypothyroidism?
failure of thyroid gland causing TSH/TRH deficiency caused by inadequate iodine supply
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what is cretinism?
infants, dwarfism caused by hypothyroidism, mental deficiency
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what is myxedema?
adults, hypothyroidism, thich patchy skin, slow speech
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what is hashimtos disease?
lack of TSH causing breakdown of colloid/follicular cell structure
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what is hashimtos disease an autoimmune disease?
antibody is produced which blocks TSH receptor on follicle cells, treated with oral thyroid hormones
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what are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
inc BMR, sweating, dec body weight
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Card 2

Front

what is the role of osteoclasts?

Back

when stimulated by parathyroid hormones break down tissue, transferring Ca from bone to the blood

Card 3

Front

what is the role of osteoblasts?

Back

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Card 4

Front

TRH

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

PRH

Back

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