- Created by: abiiwelsh
- Created on: 23-06-18 14:19
What were tribes made up of?
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How many plains indians in a band?
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Why did bands come together in summer?
Great tribal camp (social, religious) and survival
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Which tribe’s bands came together regularly?
Comanches- people moved between bands
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Which tribes was Sioux nation made up of?
Lakota, Dakota, Nakota
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How many sub- tribes were in Lakota Sioux tribe?
7- eg. Oglala and Hunkpapa
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Who were chiefs?
Male leaders- many chiefs in tribe
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What are some examples of chiefs in a tribe?
War, spiritual, negotiation chief
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What was the problem with having many chiefs?
Whites didn’t understand- made deals with some chiefs but not all- conflict
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Why were chiefs chosen?
Wisdom, leadership, spiritual powers, war skill, hunting skills
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What were the jobs of band chiefs?
Guide band to find food, protect, part of tribe council (declare war, negotiate)
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Who was Red Cloud?
Oglala, Lakota Sioux sub- tribe chief- brought Sioux and Cheyenne together in ‘Red Clouds War’ against whites
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Who was Sitting Bull?
Chief of Hunkpapa sub- tribe- holy and warrior
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Who was Crazy Horse?
Oglala sub- tribe war leader- entered spirit world
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What did sitting bull say about whites?
‘As thick as grasshoppers’
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What were some brotherhoods in the Lakota Sioux?
Horse riders, strong hearts, crow owners
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Why were brotherhoods important?
Trained fighting and taught belies and values
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Why did the brotherhoods not always follow treaties?
Not under command of tribe council- made own decisions like bands
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What did brotherhoods do?
Join guard unit, yearly buffalo hunt, fed elderly, chose where to make camp
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What brotherhood did Crazy horse develop?
‘The Last Child Society’- brotherhood of youngest sons- bravest
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What were the responsibilities of women?
Feeding, clothing, look after possessions, process buffalo hides and meat
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From following buffalo migration from summer to autumn, what did the PIs develop?
Horse-riding and archery skills, nomadic life (tipis and travois), skills to use whole buffalo, respect for buffalo and nature
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Why did the buffalo have reverence for nautre?
Spirit in everything- if harmed, spirits wouldn’t help
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What did the Plains indians not use from the buffalo? Why?
Heart- left on plains to give new life to herd
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What was raw hide and tanned hide used for?
Bags, harness, shield, robe, tipi cover, shoes
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What was tail used for? What was dung used for?
Fly whisk, ornament b) fuel
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What was a) bladder b)intestines used for?
A) food bag b) bucket, cooking vessel
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What was a) fat b) tendons used for?
A) soap b) string, cord, thread
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What were ribs, hooves, bones used for?
Sledges... glue, tools... knives, sledge runner
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What were hair, fur, tougue use for?
String, stuffing, saddles... blanket, mittens, saddle cover... hair brush
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What was skull, horses, sinews used for?
Religious ritual... head-dress, spoon, powder flask, cup, arrow straightener... bowstring, thread
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Why were horses important?
Hunt buffalo, travel for food, war, status
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How did plains indians measure wealth?
Number of horses
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In 1970s how many horses did the Comanche have?
8000- only 3000 people
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How did PI access spirits?
Vision quest- guided by spirit animal, ritual (sun dance)
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Why might PI want enter spirit world?
Charge magical items- wear in hunting, protection
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What land was the most sacred to Lakota Sioux?
Paha Sapa, The Black hills- believed they were created in cave by spirit
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Why did Plains Indias not own land?
Land is sacred- ‘mother’
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What was war over?
Raids for food, horses, weapons, people
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How did PI try to minimise young men from dieing in raids?
Raids only took place if sure of success and easy escape, only selected brotherhoods, counting coup
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What was counting coup?
It means success, attempt to hit/ touch enemy and get away- skill
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What happened on 28 May 1830?
Indian removal act- force PI to move west of Mississippi River
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What happened on 30 June 1834?
Indian Trade and INtercourse Act- frontier between US and PI territory
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What happened on 2 February 1848?
US victory in Mexican- American war
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What happened on 29 February 1851?
Indian Appropriations Act- fund PI reservations in modern day Oklahoma
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Why did Americans think they deserved land over PI?
Manifest destiny- god given right, PI weren’t developing land- whites would: plough, dig minerals, get timber, civilised country
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What were the US federal governments solutions to growing numbers of whites and conflict between them and PI?
Keep them apart and encourage plains indians to be like whites
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Which president signed the Indian removal act?
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What was the Indian removal act?
46,000 PI forced to move west of Mississippi River, promised they would never have to give up this land and would be protected from white settlers and other tribes
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What was the Trade and Intercourse act?
Keep PI and whites separate- permanent Indian frontier developed- prohibit whites settling on PI land, prohibit sales of guns and alcohol to PI, US army policed frontier
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Why was the permanent Indian frontier broken by whites?
US won Mexico territory in West, 1846 gained Oregon Country, 1845 gained Texas
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After 1848, where was the Indian territory?
In the middle of America
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How did whites get to the West? Why was it a problem?
Trails through PI territory- US army forced PI to move away from trails in their land- permanent Indian frontier was ignored by whites
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What was the indians appropriations act?
Government funded reservations for PI- some hunting land on reservations
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Why were reservations developed?
Move PI away from land whites wanted and encourage PI to farm (less farming land)
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What factors encouraged migration west?
Economic conditions in East, farmland in Oregon, Oregon trail, government help, gold rush, manifest destiny
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Why was economic conditions in east a push factor for migrating west?
1837- economic crisis in east and south- banks collapse, business failure, unemployment (25% in some areas), wage cuts (40%)- make new life in West
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Why was farmland in Oregon a pull factor to go west?
West of Rocky Mountains- free rich farmland- expensive to take boat, 1year to travel through South America- Sierra Nevada and Rockies barrier
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Why was Oregon trail a pull factor to go west?
Only practical route west, Jedidiah Smith (1825) published South Pass through Rocky Mountains, fur- trappers cleared routes and best spots to cross rivers
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When was the first transcontinental railroad?
1869- by this time 400,000 migrants had used the Oregon trail.
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When did first migrants arrive in Oregon by Oregon trail?
1836- Mr and Mrs Whitman and Mr and Mrs Spalding- missionaries
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When was the Great emigration?
1843- led by Marcus Whitman (first settler in west)- 900 people- prove large parties can travel
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What is a missionary?
Someone who travels somewhere to convert people to their faith
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How did the government encourage westward expansion?
1841- paid $30,000 for expedition to map Oregon trail
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Who led the government expedition on the Oregon trail?
John Fremont- made it seem achievable
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When was the Gold rush?
April 1849- 100,000 left east to California
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By 1855, what was the population of California?
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Why did the population in California grow so much after gold was discovered?
If gold prospectors failed- stayed and farmed, prospectors needed food, equipment etc.- businesses setup
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What were positive consequence of gold rush in California?
Farming grew- export food to world, money from gold rush- paid for first transcontinental railroad
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What were negative consequences of gold rush in California?
Mining towns- law and order problems, new migrants killed or enslaved Californian indians
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Why were migrants advised to start journey west in April?
Enough time for grass on Plains (feed animals) and arrive before winter (trapped and freeze)
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What was the problem with oxen pulling wagons?
3km/hour- delayed- freeze
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What were main problems travellers faced?
Getting stuck, illness (cholera- river was toilet and drinking water), running out of supplies
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How many people died along Oregon trail?
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Who was the donner party?
300 migrants, 60 wagons, Donner Brothers- started Oregon trail May 1846- July, Fort Bridger (Rocky Mountains)
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What did the donner party do wrong?
Split- donner brothers and 80 others- short cut (-550km)- Langford Hastings (trail guide) wrote about this route- grass, water, road- hadn’t done route though- delays- canyons, no marks or path
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When did donner party reach Sierra Nevada? What happened?
October 1846- November- snow storm, trapped, livestock dead, no food, ate dead people
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Who were the Mormons?
Religious group- prosecuted by Christians for polygamy
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When did the Mormons have to leave Illinois, why?
1845- rioters murdered Joseph Smith, new leader- Brigham Young said God told Mormons to go to Salt Like Valley (Mexican territory- escape prosecution)
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Why did the Mormons stay in Omaha in 1846?
By time arrived at starting point of Oregon trail- too late in year
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When did the small Mormon party set off from Omaha to Salt Lake Valley?
April 1847- 150 Mormons, 2000 km journey
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Why was the Mormon journey better than donner party even though they took the same route?
Small party marked route, cleared route, locate water source, river crossings, planted crops
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When did the small Mormon party and the rest reach Salt Lake Valley?
July 1847 and August 1847
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Why was Brigham Young important for migration success?
Consulted with trail guides- find out about Salt Lake Valley, divide Mormons into groups- leader per group, everyone had specific role, form wagon circles at night, resting places
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Why did Salt Lake City succeed?
Young was Gods prophet- obeyed him, decided church owned land, irrigation system, designed specific settlements to produce products, peoples jobs were related to their skills
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When did the government create Kansas and Nebraska?
1854- behind permanent Indian frontier- open for settlement and farming
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What were main problems facing white settlers on plains farming land?
Low rain fall, few rivers/ streams, few trees, indians set fires, climate extremes
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Why was having no rivers/ streams bad for farming on plains?
Can’t transport people and products, no water for livestock
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Why was having no trees bad for farming on plains?
No fuel, no timber
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Why was climate extremes bad for farming on plains?
Crops shrivlled, crops destroyed
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What did white settlers build house from?
Sods of earth- warm and fire proof, but dirty, infested and turned into mud when rain
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What was the problem with getting water from wells?
Expensive and hard work
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What were some problems of farming for the white settlers?
Ploughing (tangled roots- ploughs broke), crops (plants cant grow in conditions), prairie fires (grass burned easily- burn crops, people, livestock), grasshoppers (destroys crops, wool, grass, bloked sun, droppings polluted water)
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Why did whites think plains Indians would attack?
Stories spread- whites though tribal conflicts were aimed at them
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Why was the gold rush and Oregon trail problematic for plains indians?
Migrants disrupted buffalo hunting, killed buffalo for meat, shortage of grass for buffalo and horses (livestock and oxen with settlers)
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Why was the fort Laramie treaty of 1851 brought about?
Discovery of gold-> white migration-> pressure on food supply-> tribal conflict ->white fears PI attack ->demand to government for protection
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When was the fort Laramie treaty?
17 September 1851
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Why was getting representatives a problem for fort Laramie treaty?
Not all tribes attended council
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Why was choosing council representatives a problem for fort Laramie treaty?
Gov wanted one chief per tribe- not how PI society worked- government chose random PI to represent that tribe- eg. Gov chose Conquering bear from Brule sub tribe- not chief- warrior
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Why was agreeing boundaries a problem for fort Laramie treaty?
Government wanted each tribe to have set land- no tribal conflict, but PI were nomadic,
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Why was translation a problem for fort Laramie treaty?
Treaty in English- not enough translators; not all representatives understood
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What would the plains indians do for the fort Laramie treaty?
End tribal conflict, allow migrants to travel through land, allow railroad surveyors to enter land, allow government to build roads and army posts, pay compensation if PI broke treaty
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What would the government do for the fort Laramie treaty?
Protect PI from white Americans (stop them settling on PI territory), pay tribes annuity of $50,000 if terms kept
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What was the signifcance of the fort Laramie treaty?
First steps of reservations, undermine permanent Indian frontier, government gave annuities in food- PI relied on government
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What were problems of fort Laramie treaty?
PI didn’t have one chief representing whole tribe- bands did what they wanted, triebes didn’t stick to treaty- didn’t understand terms, tribal conflict continued, army didnt stop migrants trespassing strictly off limit places
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What were consequences of fort Laramie treaty?
Territories-> reservations, white settlers allowed to cross PI territory and railroad surveyors in PI territory-> white settlement on plains, tribes receive gov resources ->loss of PI independence
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Why did lawlessness increase in west after California gold rush of 1849?
Population increase- by 1855 there were 300,000 Californians- existing law couldn’t deal with this amount
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What are examples of lawlessness in the west?
Claim jumping (steal land), ‘salting a claim’ (put some gold on claim and trick inexperienced prospector into buying it), road agents stole, prostitutes and alcohol- violence and fighting
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What is an example of racism in the west?
1852 famine in china- Chinese immigrants to California (20,000 in 1852)- prevented from working on new claims- they still made money- whites stole and killed them
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Why was geography a problem for law enforcement?
counties were large- sheriff from Kansas covered 200,000 km^2- traveled on horse back- took long time for the news of crime to get office and then to do something about it
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Why was money a problem for the enforcement of law?
Federal gov didn’t spend much on territories- hard to recruit officers and many were corrupt- accept money instead of arrest
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Why was the lack of training a problem for law enforcement?
Officers had no legal training- not act fairly- injustice increased tension
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In mining towns what was there instead of an official court and judge?
Communities wrote rules, recorded all claims made, own court and judge from community- mining court
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Why was the vigilance committee created?
High crime level in San Francisco in 1851
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Who were the vigilantes?
Group 200 of ordinary citizens, organised by rich, who punished suspected criminals instead of relying on official justice system (inadequate)
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What was the problem with vigilance committees?
No fair trial (1851, San Fran captured 89- half not guilty)- lead to lynching (execute suspected criminal by common people), some vigilance became criminals through power
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Other cards in this set
How many plains indians in a band?
Why did bands come together in summer?
Which tribe’s bands came together regularly?
Which tribes was Sioux nation made up of?