The drainage basin hydro logical cycle

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  • Created by: tul
  • Created on: 17-11-15 13:11
Evaporation
The process by which liquid water is transformed into water vapour , which is gas. A large amount of energy is required for this to occur. The energy is usually provided by heat from the sun or by the movement of the air (wind).
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Evapotranspiration
The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata (very small pores) in its leaves.
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Infiltration
The passage of water into the soil. Infiltration takes place relatively quickly at the beginning of a storm, but as the soil becomes saturated the infiltration rate falls rapidly. Infiltration rates is affected by the nature of the soil itself.
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What type of soil allows more water to pass through?
Sandy soils
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Interception
The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches on trees, and herbaceous plants and grasses growing close to the surface, intercept water.
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Percolation
The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface. The rate of percolation depends on the nature of the rock.
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What types of rocks are impermeable?
Some rocks, particularly those of igneous or metamorphic nature, are impermeable so there is no percolation or groundwater flow.
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Runoff
All the water that enters a river and eventually flows out of the drainage basin. It can be quantified by measuring the discharge of the river.
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Stemflow
The water that runs down the stems and branches of plants and trees druing and after rain to reach the ground. It takes place after interception has occured.
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Throughfall
The water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm. It occurs when more water falls onto the interception layer of the tree canopy that can remain on the leaves.
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Throughflow
The water that moves down-slope through the sub-soil, pulled by gravity. It is particularly effective when underlying impermeable rock prevents percolation.
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Card 2

Front

Evapotranspiration

Back

The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata (very small pores) in its leaves.

Card 3

Front

Infiltration

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of soil allows more water to pass through?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Interception

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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