The downfall of the Romanovs

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  • Created by: apple87
  • Created on: 11-01-16 19:19
When was the fundamental law issued?
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When did the first Duma begin?
April 1906
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When did the first Duma end?
June 1906
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When did the second Duma begin?
February 1907
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When did the second Duma end?
June 1907
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When did the third Duma begin?
November 1907
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When did the third Duma end?
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When were redemption payment abolished?
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When was Stolypin assassinated?
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When did the fourth Duma begin?
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When did the fourth Duma end?
February 1917
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When was the Zegmor formed?
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When did Nicholas II appoint himself supreme commander of the armed forces?
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When did the Tsar abdicate?
March 1917
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What was the Zegmor?
An organisation that helped the government in the First World War.
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What did the Fundamental law state?
The Tsar had supreme autocratic power, Tsar could govern by issuing decrees, a council of state was created, laws proposed by Duma had to be approved by Tsar and Council of state, government ministers were appointed by Tsar and answered only to him.
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Which four main parties made up the First Duma?
Trudoviks, Octoberists, Progressives, Kadets
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What radical demands were made during the first Duma?
All adult males should have the vote, major land reforms should be introduced to benefit the peasants, political prisoners to be released, ministers should be answerable to the Dumas.
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What was the result of the first Duma?
Nicholas refused all deamands, after 72 days of stalemate he dissolved the Duma. Deputies appealed to Russians to protest the dissolution of the Duma-Nicholas responded by arresting deputies.
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Which parties gained and lost seats in the second Duma?
Kadets lost seats. Socialist Revolutionaries, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks gained seats
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What was the result of the second Duma?
Passed land reform, existed in a sate of almost constant uproar.
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What changes were made to the electoral system for the third Duma?
Peasants lost the vote making the Duma more right wing
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What was the largest party during the third Duma?
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What was the result of the fourth Duma?
Further land reform, insurance system for workers. More right wing so the deputies worked with the government rather than challenging it.
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Which party dominated the fourth Duma?
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What progress was made during the third and fourth Duma?
Land captians were replaced by justices of peace, massive increase in education provision, political parties made legal, Duma debates were published in the press, Nicholas changed his attitude towards the Dumas.
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Who were justices of peace?
Elected officials who judged minor court cases.
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When did Stolypin become Prime minister?
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How did Stolypin deal with the unrest?
Used the army and police to suppress unrest, introduced a new court system to offenders coud be rapidly tried and sentenced to death, exile or hard labour.
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What was the effect of Stolypin's repression?
Order was restored but it made Tsarism even more unpopular.
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What were the consequences of Russia's farming techniques?
Low yields compared to Europe, frequent and widespread, most peasants couldn't make a profit.
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Why was Russian agriculture backwards?
Peasants were still under control of the mir, peasants had their share of land in different fields, outdated farming techniques like crop rotation and outdated technology.
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What were Stolypin's four main aims in resolving argricultural problems?
Increase the prosperity of the peasants and to develop a class of well off peasants, increase crop yield, have fewer famines, make the peasants more content and less likely to rebel.
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What were Stolypin's land reforms?
Peasants had the unconditional right to land, they could demand their own landholding without interference from the mir, agricultural education on farming techniques was introduced, sold areas of the the crowns land to the peasants land bank.
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How did Stolypin encourage emigration to Siberia?
Offered cheap land and tax exemptions. Also the transiberian railway helped move migrants.
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How many people relocated to Siberia between 1908 and 1913?
3 million
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What other reforms did Stolypin introduce?
Repemtion payments were abolished, internal passports were abolished giving more freedom, land captains were replaced with justices of peace.
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What were the limitations of Stolypin's reforms?
Only a few could afford to buy thier own land, there was still millions of hectacres owned by the Tsar and nobility, little change in farming techniques and output.
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What percentage of peasants set up their own land holdings?
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Explain a possible reason why Stolypin's reforms had limited success.
He wasn't given enough time. The reforms needed to be developed and established over many years, he was assassinated in 1911 and WW1 broke out in 1914 so the long term effects were never realised.
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What were the weaknesses in the armed forces in 1914?
Millions were conscripted, morale was low after early defeats, poor conditions, low medical supplies, filthy hospitals, command structure was inefficient-officers chosen my social status, desertions were common, undiciplined.
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What was the name of two battles Russia was defeated in in 1914?
Masurian Lakes and Tannenburg
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How many soldiers deserted during the Brusilov offensive?
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What were the issues with the transport system in 1914?
The system was overloaded in peace time-by 1916 it had virtually collapsed, the large supply of armaments couldn't be delivered, engine failures, food couldn't get through, grain left to rot, widespread food shortage left many people starving
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What weaknesses were there in the economy in 1914?
The gold standard was abandoned so they could print unlimited amounts of money but this caused inflation-wages couldn't keep up, peasants realised inflation meant it wasn't worth selling grain so they hoarded it, main exporting ports were blockaded
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What problems did Nicholas and Alexandra cause during WW1?
In 1915 Nicholas appointed himself Commander in Chief of the army- all defeats were his fault. Nicholas' long absence left Alexandra to superive the government, Alexandra constrantly swapped ministers causing unstabilty.
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How did people respond to the start of WW1?
They supported the war effort.
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Why was Nicholas forced to recall the Duma?
Because of the failures in the war
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What was the Zemgor?
Helped the war effort by providing supplies to hospitals, helped organise industries in smaller towns and villages.
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How did Nicholas react to the Zemgor?
He was suspicious of it and refused to work with it.
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Why was the progressive bloc formed?
Formed a fter Nicholas rejected proposales for a government that has national support and would be answerable to the Duma, it also pressed for changes in the runnng of the war.
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When was the Zemgor formed?
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What were the social problems that contributed to the 1917 revolution?
Towns were overcrowded with poor sanitation and water supplies. Famine was common and food supplies were unreliable. Living conditions were cramped and unhealthy. Long hours for low pay. Health and eduation was poor which created inequality.
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How did Russia's agricultural output compare with the rest of the world?
It ranked 5th. Smaller countries like Britain and Germany produced more.
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What were the political problems that led to revolution in 1917?
The Tsar was reluctant to gove the Duma more responsibility, he was also reluctant to make major reforms which dssapointed politicians.
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What were the problems with the Tsarist system?
Nicholas wasn't a very effective leader, his father called him a 'girlie', when Alexander III died Nicholas admitted he didn't feel fit to govern, Nicholas was strongly influenced by his wife and Rasputin.
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What did the celebration of 300 years of Romanove rule demonstrate about support for the Tsar?
There wasn't strong opposition because the Tsar and his family could parade without fear and it was widely celebrated by the public wich shows that the Tsars reputation had improved since 1905.
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How many Russian troops were killed of wounded during WW1?
Over a million were dead and 4 million were wounded.
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What warnings was Nicholas given about revolution?
The Okhran warned the government abour unrest and indicated a revolution could happen at any moment. President of the Duma warned Russia was reaching crisis point.
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How did Nicholas react to the warnings about revolution?
He ignored them.
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What was the difference between the 1905 revolution and in 1917?
In 1905 the government could use force to crush strikes but in 1917 there was widespread support among all classes, troops were unwilling to fire on protestors.
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How did the wealthy classes feel about the monarchy?
They believed it couldn't be saved and it wasn't worth saving anyway.
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What key event happened in January 1917 that lead upto the revolution?
The anniversary of Bloody Sunday was commerated by very large demonstrations
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What happened on the 22nd February 1917?
20,000 workers went on strike from the Putilove engineering works went on strike and demonstrated.
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What happened on the 23rd of February 1917?
Internatonal Womens day was marked with demonstrations and meetings demandingbread on fuel.
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What happened on the 25th February 1917?
Petrograd was paralysed by a general strike-industry shut down.
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What happened on the 27 February 1917?
The strikes and demonstrations turned into a revolution. The Tsar ordere trops to suppress unrest, there was widespread mutiny among troops, the Duma was shut down and it refused to form a provisional committee.
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What happened on the 28th February?
The Petrograd Soviet was set up to look after the workers interests.
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What happened as the Tsar travelled to Petrograd?
The train was diverted by mutinous troops, he met with the army high command, some ministers and Duma representative, they told he he should abticate in favour of Alexei but he feared Alexei would't be strong enough to rule.
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What happened on the 2nd March 1917?
The Tsar abdicated in favour of the brother Michale who refused and the Romanov rule ended.
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When was the Provisional government set up, and how long did it last?
3rd March 1917 it lasted 7 months.
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What had happened to political parties since the 1880's?
They had grown in size and become more organised.
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How did political parties react to the revolution?
It took them by suprise and they failed to seiz control of the situation.
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Where was Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin in 1917?
Lenin was in Switzerland, Stalin was in exile in Siberia and Trotsky was in the United States.
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What influence did the revolutionaries have over the events of February?
They established the Petrograd Soviet.
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When did the first Duma begin?


April 1906

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When did the second Duma begin?


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