The Development Gap

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 07-06-16 20:06
What does development mean?
When a country is improving, the quality of life generally improves as well.
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List the 11 development indicators:
Birth rate, death rate, life expectancy, GDP, GNI, GNI per Capita, people per doctor, infant mortality, literacy rate, access to safe water, HDI.
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Which is the best development indicator and why?
HDI because it combines 4 different indicators: life expectancy, literacy rate, education level and income per head.
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Why do the indicators have limitations?
Can be misleading as they don't necessarily represent a whole population. For example a country may have a high GNI per capita, but in reality there are many rich people and many poor people.
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Why do we not classify countries as MEDCs and LEDCs anymore?
It is outdated. Now we use 6 different classifications: RIC, NIC, LEDC, MEDC, HIP and Oil-exporting countries.
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What does standard of living mean?
The material wealth of people, e.g. owning a car or house.
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What does quality of life mean?
It is standard of living plus factors that can't easily be measured, e.g. how safe people feel.
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What does global inequalities mean?
The level of development of different countries in the world is unequal.
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What are the environmental causes of global inequalities?
Poor climate, poor farming land, natural hazards and few raw materials
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What are the political causes of global inequalities?
Corrupt government. War.
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What are the social causes of global inequalities?
Drinking water, role of women in society, child education.
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What are the economic causes of global inequalities?
Poor trade links, lots of debt, an economy based on primary goods.
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Example of a country facing global inequalities
Haiti
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What happened in January 2010 in Haiti?
An earthquake struck.
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What were the social impacts?
Cholera outbreak lead to 500,000 people being affected. 1.3 million were made homeless. Homes were destroyed. People were killed.
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What were the economic impacts?
Earthquake happened close to the capital, almost wiping it out. Main port was damaged. Hospitals were damaged.
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What were the environmental impacts?
Severe aftershocks.
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How did this affect development?
Halted development as money had to be spent on redeveloping back to the point they were at, rather than advancing.
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What happened in November 2012?
Hurricane Sandy hit, wiping out all development efforts.
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What are the ways of reducing global inequalities.
Aid and trade.
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What are the types of aid?
Short-term emergency aid, long-term development aid, bilateral, multilateral, governmental, voluntary, NGO
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What are the benefits of aid?
Political allies, helps a country to develop, saves lives, develop economy and infrastructure.
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What are the negatives of aid?
Cost, disagreements, can become reliant upon aid, corruption.
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Why is trade unfair?
Tariffs and trade groups make it hard for countries to trade.
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What is fair trade, how does it help?
Trade which gives a fair price to the producer. Makes sure that the farmers earn a minimum wage and have a constant income. Farmers are also educated and trained to develop their farms further.
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What is free trade?
Trade without tariffs. Means countries get more money from trade allowing them to develop.
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What are trading groups?
Groups such as the EU. EU consist of 31% of the worlds wealth. Reduce trading barriers between them making trade easier so they can earn more money. Countries not part of it struggle to trade to the inside.
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What is debt abolition?
A country can clear part of or all of a countries debt. This means that instead of trying to repay the debt, the country can spend money developing. Worked in Zambia. Their debt was cancelled allowing them to start free healthcare and improve qol.
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What are conservation swaps?
When part of a countries debt is paid off. In return the country has to conserve their environment. E.g. The USA reduced Peru's debt in exchange for conserving it's rainforests.
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Example of a long-term development aid scheme:
Wateraid in Mali.
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What?
Provided water pumps and educated the people of the slums in Bamako on the importance of hygiene.
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Did it work?
Yes now 220,000 people have access to clean, safe water. Improved the quality of life. People were able to work and go to school as were no longer ill.
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Sustainable?
Yes, trained locals on how to maintain and manage the system.
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Chore Bassa Dam, Mozambique
Another long-term development aid project.
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What?
Aimed to provide electricity to rural areas in order to increase productivity by building a HEP with 5 turbines.
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Was it successful?
No, only 1% of rural people have access to electricity. Most is sold to South Africa.
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What are the problems?
Reduced the shrimp fishing industry since the water levels were too low as most of the water is held in the reservoir.
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Sustainable?
Potentially if more people could benefit.
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Name a small-scale development scheme:
Nairobi Kenya
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What?
They have built five toilet and shower blocks and have employed local people to maintain them
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Successful?
Yes, it has improved the quality of life. People have clean, safe water, reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera meaning more people are working as not ill.
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Sustainable?
Yes, employed local people to maintain it. Made a fee to use them, money used to help develop and improve the quality of life. Allows them to build more.
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What is bottom up aid
Money given to communities to develop and work its way up.
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What is top down aid?
Money is given to the governments to fund large scale projects. Not great if government is corrupt.
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What type of aid was wateraid in Mali?
Voluntary, long-term development aid.
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What type of aid was the Cahora Bassa Dam project?
Governmental, bilateral aid.
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What is the EU?
It is the European Union. Set up in 1957. Six founding countries: Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and Luxembourg.
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The EU now:
28 members. Provides 31% of the worlds wealth. Population over 500 million.
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What is the core region?
Wealthiest population. Well developed infrastructure. E.g. UK and France.
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What is the periphery region?
Economically poor. Poor living standards. E.g. Romania and Bulgaria.
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What is a trade surplus?
When the money earned from exports is greater than the cost of imports.
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What is a trade deficit?
When the money earned from exports is less than the cost of imports.
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What does disparities mean?
Inequality
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Facts about Bulgaria - Periphery Region
Life expectancy: 71. Population: 8 million. Steep land, poor for agriculture. Rely on primary goods. Young people have migrated away. Corrupt government.
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Facts about Germany - Core Region
Population 82 million. Flat fertile land, good for agriculture. High literacy rate. Life expectancy: 80. Well developed infrastructure. Good trade links. Stable government.
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Why is Germany more developed than Bulgaria?
Germany has a trade surplus of 300 billion, whereas Bulgaria has a trade deficit of -11 billion. Bulgaria mainly exports primary, low valued goods, whereas Germany is a good manufacturer. Germany has a better quality of life. Higher life expectancy.
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Continued...
Therefore suggesting better healthcare and sanitation.
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How does the EU reduce global inequalities?
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), European Social Fund, European Cohesion Fund, Urban II Fund, European Investment Bank and European Regional Development Fund.
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What is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)?
Provides subsidies for farmers. Provided with money to stay in agriculture. Many think its a waste of money.
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What is the European Social Fund?
Pays for education and training schemes. Improving the skills of locals.
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What is the European Cohesion Fund?
Cover environmental and transport infrastructure projects and development of renewable energy.
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What is the Urban II Fund?
It invests in deprived urban areas by improving living conditions, creating jobs and providing education to disadvantaged groups.
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What is the European Investment Bank?
Money from EU countries. They contribute according to size and wealth. Helps fund regional development schemes.
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What is the European Regional Development Fund?
Invests in developing infrastructure in order to make areas look more attractive for commercial investment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

List the 11 development indicators:

Back

Birth rate, death rate, life expectancy, GDP, GNI, GNI per Capita, people per doctor, infant mortality, literacy rate, access to safe water, HDI.

Card 3

Front

Which is the best development indicator and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do the indicators have limitations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do we not classify countries as MEDCs and LEDCs anymore?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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