The Control of Blood Glucose

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What is the concentration of blood glucose controlled by?
Alpha and Beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans
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What is the normal blood glucose concentration level?
90mg per 100cm3 of blood or 4-6 mmol dm3
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How do the Alpha and beta cells respond to the change in blood glucose levels?
By releasing a hormone
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Which cell detects whether blood concentration is too high and what does it do?
Beta cells and it secretes the hormone insulin
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What are the beta cells target cells?
Hepatocytes (liver cells), muscle cells and some other cells including some in the brain
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Why does the beta cell hormone only target specific cells?
Because they have specific membrane bound receptors that the insulin can bind to when blood passes them
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What does the hormone insulin do to the inside of the cell to start of the reactions?
Activate the enzyme adenyl cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP (Cyclic AMP) which starts many enzyme controlled reactions
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What effect does the hormone insulin have on the cell?
Converts glucose to glyocgen (glycogenesis) for storage, more glucose channels are produced on the edge of the membrane, more glucose enters the cell, glucose used in respiration and glucose is converted into fats
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Which cell detects if the blood glucose concentration level is too low and which hormone does it secrete?
Alpha cells and it secretes glucagon
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What are the alpha cells hormones target cells and why?
Hepatocytes because they have specific membrane bound receptors that allow glucagon to bind to them
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What are the effects of glucagon on a cell?
Glycogen is converted into glucose (glycogenolysis), more fatty acids are used up in respiration, production of glucose by conversion of amino acids and fats (glyconeogenesis), more glucose is released into the blood
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Card 2

Front

What is the normal blood glucose concentration level?

Back

90mg per 100cm3 of blood or 4-6 mmol dm3

Card 3

Front

How do the Alpha and beta cells respond to the change in blood glucose levels?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which cell detects whether blood concentration is too high and what does it do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the beta cells target cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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