The Conservative party 1997-2007

what divisions remained after Major resigned in 1997 ?
on Europe + wound of thatcher’s fall was still unhealed w/ people who ‘betrayed Maggie’ continuing
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significance of 1997 election?
1997 election (Like 1979) was turning point that Tory party would have to change
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conservative party euro-sceptic by 1997?
145 of remaining 165 conservative MP’s = Eurosceptic
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leadership challenge by 1997?
Heseltine suffered ill health BUT not likely to be successful as being both pro-Europe + not forgiven for challenging Thatcher in 1990. Ken Clarke – well regarded by electorate for success chanc. excheq. BUT pro-Europe.Portillo surprisingly lost seat
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when + who was William Hague leader of Tory party?
1997-2001 - popular + profound MP for Richmond – Eurosceptic + skill as debater. he was a MOD. attempted to make Conservative polices more socially inclusive. Became foreign secretary in coalition govt. after 2010
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thatcher's opinion on leadership challenge 1997?
Thatcher – ‘vote for William Hague to follow the same kind of government I did’
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what did Hague represent?
he was 36-years-old w/ limited political experience. He believed he could represent a fresh start – had fewer enemies than his rivals
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Hague's success in unifying tory party ?
Hague largely unified party on Europe by ruling out entry into single currency
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opinion on tory party by 1997?
Tory party was seen as uncaring, intolerant, old-fashioned + obsessed w/ Europe
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what did Peter Lilley do in 1999?
1999 – Peter Lilley (arch Thatcherite) criticised elements of Thatcherism in speech – he warned public that he was suspicious of such reforms. • Speech caused uproar – Hague forced to reiterate her support for Thatcher
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what was tory divisions based on ?
those who wanted change = MODS + those who resisted this = ROCKERS
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who were MODS?
modernisers – broadly Eurosceptic but tended to be pragmatic. Were economic Thatcherites but influenced by ‘compassionate conservativism’ + were socially liberal + wanted Tory to appear more inclusive
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Who were ROCKERS?
ROCKERS – resistant to change + tended to have hard-line views on Eurosceptic + Thatcherism + some influenced by ‘compassionate conservativism’. Were socially Conservative
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Success of Tory govt. under Hague?
Tories failed to make any progress in polls + Hague felt threatened when Portillo was elected in by-election. • Tories went down another crushing defeat in 2001 – Hague resigned
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leadership challenge in 2001?
Clarke remained popular w/ broader electorate BUT had pro-European views • Portillo was Eurosceptic + promised to make Tories modern + inclusive BUT this made him unpopular w/ traditional Tories
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new rules on voting in 2001?
MPs vote until 2 remain + then go to party membership – aim was prevent situation as when Thatcher lost office in 1990 against wishes of many party activist BUT critics say this may not elect someone who had support of MPs +/or be attra
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When + who was Ian Duncan Smith leader of Tory party?
2001-2003. won in 2001 due to negative voting against Clarke + Portillo. he was a ROCKER + aggressively Eurosceptic – reopened divisions. He made some efforts to intro compassionate conservatism – party had to do more to tackle poverty
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divisions under Ian Duncan Smith's government ?
Party also remained socially conservative – voting against clause 28 + against allowing unmarried couples to adopt. • Created divisions in party as modernises (David Cameron + George Osborn) refused to follow party line
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why was Duncan Smith ousted from power?
supported brit entry into Iraq war – criticised by some. Press speculation about salary he paid to his wife to act as his secretary – he faced vote of no confidence.
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when + who was Michael Howard leader of Tory party ?
2003-2005. Unifying figure – support from MODS + ROCKERS. • Howard struggled to compete w/ Blair in opinion polls • Work of Duncan smith on social justice abandoned + Tories remained distrusted on key policy
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success of Howard's govt.?
Howard did bring stability to party - He was on right of party + socially conservative (MOD) BUT promoted modernisers in his cabinet
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when + who was David Cameron leader of Tory party?
2005 - 2016. Still Eurosceptic BUT talked less about. Cameron set out to detoxify + modernise conservative party. wealthy background + had early career in public relations + policy advisor at time of black Wed + became PM 2010 leading coalition govt.
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who was David Davis?
working-class background + socially conservative but supporter of civil liberties, resigning from shadow cabinet 2008 where he stood as opponent to polices which he though eroded these. Cameron defeated Davis partly due to impressive note-free speech
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who was George Osborn ?
moderniser, socially liberal though economically Thatcherite. Chancellor of exchequer in coalition govt. 2010 - • Osborn promised to maintain labours level of spending on public services – ruling out taxes effectively
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what did Cameron + other modernisers want to achieve ?
Cameron + other modernisers understood it should make party more tolerant + inclusive + longer be hostile to all kinds of social groups
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what did Cameron achieve ?
He promised Tories take seriously climate issue problem – visited Arctic + cycled to Westminster. Favour of gay rights + wanted to increase overseas aid. Praised way NHS dealt w/ his disabled son + promised future tory party would protect it.
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why did labour find it hard to attack David Cameron ?
because labour party’s popularity was in decline + 1st time since 1997 – Tories seemed to offer credible alternative…
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why were tories defeated in 2001 election? HAGUE
1st-past-the-post distorted results in terms of no. seats won. Image of old fashioned + obsessed w/ EU – campaign still didn’t focus on social issues. Hague = no match for Blair’s personal popularity+mocked. Party divisions. Mummy Returns. L campaig
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what were the on-going party divisions in 2001?
On-going party divisions & Hague’s own personal weakness in polls - by 2001 instead of modernising, he moved further to right-wing policy decisions - e.g. hard line on immigration + ‘the fight to save the pound’
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what is the'Mummy returns'?
thatcher's involvement - attracted some BUT did not increase appeal w/ electorate
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results of 2001 election?
LABOUR WON - Labour lost only 5 seats. • The Conservatives suffered 2nd landslide defeat. Hague’s naivety as a leader did not win him votes, he made foolish decisions, e.g. supporting Jeffrey Archer as a candidate for London Mayor
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why was decision of Hague to support archer as Mayor a foolish decision?
Archer was later found guilty of perjury.
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why were tories defeated in 2005 election? HOWARD
Howard focused on party unity not modernising. 2 leaders since 2001 made party appear unstable, Howard, whilst he talked of moving the party to the centre, he was on the right of the party & was associated with the previous Conservative governments
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wat was wrong w/ 2005 labour campaign ?
the manifesto reinforced a tough line on immigration, travellers, law and order as well as tax cuts and a reduction in the public sector.
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what was Tory deputy chairman recorded saying before 2005 election?
Conservative deputy chairman recorded at private dinner promising the party would be much more radically Thatcherite in government than modernisers would admit – confirmed suspicions that still same party as 1980
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significance of 1997 election?


1997 election (Like 1979) was turning point that Tory party would have to change

Card 3


conservative party euro-sceptic by 1997?


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Card 4


leadership challenge by 1997?


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Card 5


when + who was William Hague leader of Tory party?


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