The Cold War Revision notes

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  • Created by: Dem_co
  • Created on: 01-02-16 19:20
When was the Grand Alliance set up?
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What was the aim of the Grand Alliance?
To defeat Hitler and the Nazis
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When was Teheran Conference?
November 1943
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Who was at the Teheran Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin
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What did Britain and USA agree at the Teheran Conference
Second Front to ease the pressure on the Soviet Union
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What did the Soviet Union promise at the Teheran Conference?
to help fight JAPAN after defeating Germany
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When was the Yalta Conference?
Feburary 1945
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Who was at the Yalta Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
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What happend to Germany/Berlin at the Yalta Conference?
It was divided into four zones controlled by Britain, France, SU & America
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What does Stalin allow at the Yalta Conference?
Free elections in Eastern Europe.
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Give an example of how stalin was obsessed with security?
He wanted to change Poland's borders and so gained Eastern Poland as a Buffer zone and the rest of Poland gaining land from Germany as compensation.
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What was set up to replace the League of Nations?
League of Nations
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Why and how did Stalin want to cripple Germany?
because of the 26 million Soviet deaths, Stalin wanted to cripple Germany by forcing them to pay reperations of $10 billion
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When was the Potsdam conference?
July 1945
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Who was at the Potsdam Conference
Truman, Stalin and Attlee
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What happened to the Nazi party and Nazi war criminals at the Potsdam Conference?
Nazi party dissolved and War criminals put on trial at Nuremberg.
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What was Germany granted at the Potsdam Conference?
Free elections
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What did the Soviet Union gain in terms of reperations at the Potsdam conference and why?
The got a quarter of the industrial goods made in western zones because of the 26 million deaths and as they had the poorer zone of Germany with less industry.
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Why do relations get worse at the Potsdam Conference?
New American President Truman wanted to "Get tough on Russia" (known as the "Iron fist"
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What did Stalin refuse at the Potsdam Conference?
They refused have free elections in eastern europe, eg. imposed Communist goverment on Poland.
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Why was there less keeping the "Big Three" together?
They had defeated Germany
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When and where did the Iron Curtain speech take place?
March 1946 and in America.
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What is the quote from Churchill's iron curtain speech? & meaning?
"An Iron curtain had descended across the continent" he meant that Europe had been divided into communist Eastern Europe.
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What countries did the Soviet Union take over?
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany
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Give reasons for why Stalin took over Eastern Europe?
1.Wanted a buffer zone of countries to protect the Soviet Union from attack from capitalist Europe. 2 Stalin didn't trust the the West 3. He wanted compensation for 26 million deaths 4.He wanted to spread communism
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Who sent the Long Telegram of 1946 and what did it report?
Geroge Kennan and it stated that Stalin was building up Soviet military power and had made a speech calling for the destruction of Capitalism
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Who sent the Novikov Telgram of 1946 and what did it report?
Soviet AMBASSADOR, reported that America wanted to dominate the world and that American public were being prepared for war against the Societ Union.
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In Greece February 1947, what were the British Goverment no longer capable of affording?
The costs to support the Greek government which was fighting a civil war against communists.
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How much did America give to the Greek goverement to help the royalists in Greece defeat the Communists?
$400 million
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What idea did the donation of $400 million dollars give Truman?
It gave him the idea that he could contain the spread of communism around the world.
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When was the Truman Doctine?
March 1947
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In the Truman Doctrine what did President Truman promise?
To help any country under threat from Communism
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What did the Truman Doctrine show about the USA?
1. Dropped Policy of Isolation. 2.Saw themselves as the world's peace keepers and not the UN 3.They feared soviet expansion and now tried a policy of containment 4.World now divided (capitalism vs communism)
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In what year and what month was the Marshall Plan set up?
March 1947
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Why did Truman set up the the Marshall plan?
To help Europe rebuild after second world war and ensure that countries who accepted the money, would buy American goods. Also stop other countries becoming communist.
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Who was the Marshall plan names after?
Secretary of State George C Marshall
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Althoiugh the Marshall plan was offered to all Europeon countries why did not all accept?
Stalin wouldn't allow countries in Easter Europe to accept the money as he viewed it as a CAPITALIST BRIBE.
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What would you have to join if you accepted the money?
The OEEC where America told tem how to spend the money. This meant america could influence those countries and ensure they remained loyal to America .
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How many countries accpeted $13.75 billion of Marshall aid?
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How did Churchill describe the Marshall Plan?
"The most unselfish act in history" but really showed America would do anything to stop the spread of communism.
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Why was Cominform set up in 1947?
Set up by Stalin to control comunist parties over Europe. Soviet respons to the Truman doctrine.
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What was Cominform also used for?
To make sure all the giveremnts in the satellite states were loyal to Stalin, following Soviet foreign policy and economic policies e.g by 1953 5% of the population in Hungary were imprisoned for not staying loyal to STALIN.
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What was Stalin's version of Marshall aid called and what year was it set up
Comecon and 1949
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How did stalin use Comecon to control the economies in eastern europe?
e.g Czechoslovakia and East Germany were ordered to focus on Heavy industry (e.g coal and steel) whilst Romania, Hungary and Bugaria were told to focus on farming.
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What was the name given to France, Britain and America's zones which united in 1947?
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What was the name of the new currency which Trizonia had set up, in 1948?
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Why did Stalin not want a strong west?
As they could attack the Soviet Union
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Explain the first major flashpoint of the Cold war? (June 1948-May 1949)
Stalin stopped food and supplies getting into West Berlin by road rail and canal. He wanted West Berlin to surrender to the SU so the new government of Trizonia, based in West Berlin wouldn't be able to Control its territory in west germany.BerlinBlo
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Give examples of items dropped onto WEST BERLIN during the Berlin airlift?
Food, clothing, oil and building supplies.
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How frequently were planes dropping supplies?
1 plane was dropping supplies every 3 minutes.
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What was the total cost of the succssful Berlin airlift?
$224 million
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As a result of the Berlin Blockade when Germany split up into two, what did these countires become known as?
West Germany became the Fedral republic of Germany(capitalist) & East Germany became the German Democratic Republic (communist)
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When was NATO set up and by how many countries?
in 1949 and by 13 countries in the WEST.
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Why was the military alliance (NATO) set up?
The west could no longer trust Stalin
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What year did Stalin die and who was his replacement?
STalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev was his replacement in 1955
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With Khrushchev as leader there was a period of good relations what was this called?
The Thaw
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What did the policy of "co-existence" mean which Krushchev introduced?
This meant that he would not destroy the west but comepete with it .
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Why was the Warsaw pact set up in in 1955?
As this was the year in which the Federal republic of Germany (west gerrmany) was allowed into NATO, the SU were threatened by a strong west and so set up the WARSAW PACT.
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Which countries made up the Warsaw pact?
Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and East Germany
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What did the Warsaw pact agree?
They agreed to protect any member country from attack by the West
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In Khrushchev's secret speech in Febuary 1956 how did he give the impression that was a soft leader?
Khrushcev attacked Stalin's rule and released political prisoners
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On the 23rd of October 1956 what happened in Budapest(Hungary)? why?
Fighting broke out and a statue of Stalin was pulled down. Khrushchev's "secret speech" gave hungarians hope that they could break free from Soviet control + fuel and bread shortages
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Who was the hated puppet leader RAKOSI replaced by?
Immre Nagy
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On the 4th of November 1956 how did Khruschev react to the Hungarian outburst?
He sent in 200,000 Soviet troops who killed 2,500 Hungarians and wounded 20,000. Nagy was arrested and hung in June 1958, causing 200,000 hungarians to flee to the west.
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Why was Nagy killed and who was his replacement?
Nagy withdrew from the Warsaw pact (resulted in Khrushchev not allowing any country to leave) Nagy also held free elections. He was replaced by Kadar
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Although America did not jump to Hungary's rescue (as they were already Communist) what did they do?
They gave food and medical aid worth $20 million and allowed 80,000 Hungarians to move to the USA.
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Between 1949-1961 over how many people had escaped East Germany for a better life in the West?
over 2.7 million people
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Describe the occupations of those who left east germany?
Young professionals such as doctors, teachers, scientists and engineers
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What did the loss of the acedmic refugees become known as?
the brain drain
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Give an example of the extent of the brain drain?
When the whole Maths department at the University of Leipzig (east germany) defected on one day
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Why did so many factories only work half day during this period (1949-1961)?
becauase their workers kept defecting (leaving)
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By January 1961 how many people a month were escaping to the West through West Berlin?
20,000 people a month
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What month and year was the wall built?
August 1961
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What could Khrushchev not allow to continue in East Germany?
West Berlin's influence as it advertised captilism(east germans envied lifestyle because they saw it so close to them) and West Berlin would be used as spying headquarters for the West.
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In November 1958 what did Khrushchev declare?
That the whole city of Berlin belonged to East Germany and gave American troops 6 months to withdraw
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Name both of the failed Summits?
Geneva Summit and Camp David Summit of 1959
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What happened in the Geneva Summit of 1959?
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met but could not reach an agreement
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What happened at the Camp David Summit 1959?
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met at Camp David in America (first time a soviet President had been to the usa) but again no agreement was reached
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Why was the Paris Conference of 1960 a disaster?
As it follwed the U2 Spy plane incident and Khrushchev used this as an exucse to storm out of the meeting.
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What happened during U2 Spy plane Incident of 1st May 1960?
An American spy plane was shot down over Russia and the American Pilot, Gary Powers was arrested. America lied and said it was a weather plane but then admitted.
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After Khrushchev and Kennedy met at the Vienna conference of 1961, what actions did Kennedy take?
He ordered and extra $3.2 billion of money be spent on defence and spent an extra $207 million on building nuclear fallout shelters.
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What did pupper leader of German Democratic Republic , Walter Ulbricht want after the Vienna Conference?
a wall built
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On what date was a wall built all the way around West Berlin?
13th August 1961
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Before 1959 who ruled Cuba?
Dictator General Batista
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How many prostititutes were there in Havana (Captial Cuba)?
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Give examples of American ownership in Cuba?
America owned 90% of the phone and electric supply, 50% of the railways, 40% of all sugar production and all of the oil refineries.
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In 1959 who led a revolution in Cuba?
Fidel Catro did with the help of Che Guevera
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With Fidel Catstro and Che Guevera in power what did they do (America)
took back the land from American businesses and kicked the Mafia out of Havana
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What did America do in response to Fidel Castro and Che Guevera's actions?
America stopped buying sugar in 1960.
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Why did the SU agree to buy 1 million tonnes of Cuban sugar and donate $100 million in aid?
The SU noticed that Cuba was 90 miles away from the coast of amerca, and if Khrushchev placed atomic bombs on Cuba they would have the ability to destroy every city apart from the far west(LA, San Fran & Seattle)
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What was the Bay of Pigs (April 1961)?
It was when the American CIA organised and invasion of Cuba by 1,300 Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs
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What occured during the Bay of Pigs (April 1961)?
Kennedy backed the planned invasion & gave $45million to fund it, but the ships crashed on rocks & the exiles were met by 20,000 Cuban troops. USA had to give Cuba $53 million paid in baby food, medicine and medical equipment to get the exiles releas
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How did the Bay of Pigs make Kennedy appear ?
It made him look foolish and was now seen as young and inexperienced by Khrushchec.
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A month after the Bay of Pigs what happened in Cuba?
Castro anounced that Cuba was now a communist country.
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On the 25th September 1962 what did Khrushchev do?
Khrushchev sent 114 Soviet ships to Cuba carrying a secret cargo, including nuclear warheads and long range missiles.
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What happened 14th October 1962?
an American U2 spy plane took photographs which showed Soviet nuclear bases being built on Cuba with the ability to destroy America, also 20 Soviet ships sailing to Cuba with nuclear missiles.
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When was the naval blockade in Cuba?
20th October 1962
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How many american ships surrounded Cuba during the naval blockade?
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During the Cuban Missiles Cris what two groups were both Kennedy and Khrushchev's advisors divided into?
Hawks (wanted war) and doves (wanted peace)
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How did Khrushchev react to the naval blockade, what did he do?
Khrushchev wrote a letter complaining that America had no right to interfere in Cuba's politics.The soviet ships slpwed down on the 24th October 1962
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Krushchev sent 2 telegrams when was the first one sent?
Telegram 1- 26th October 1962
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What did the first Telegram say?
If America stops the blockade the nuclear bases will be removed.
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When was the second Telegram sent?
27th October 1962
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What did the second Telegram say?
Khruschev states the Soviet Union will remove the missile bases if America stops the blockade and removes their nuclear missiles from Turkey
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What does Kennedy do in response of the Telegrams?
Kennedy accepts the first telegram publicly but not the second one instead her accepts in secret and America removes weapons from Turkey.
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What were the results of the Cuban Missiles Crisis?
Khrushchev seen as backing down, he is sacked in 1964. Kennedy's reputation is improved. Detente.
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Who was Krushchev replaced with?
Leonid Brezhnev
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Whos was Hot-line of 1963 set up between?
Kremlin and Whitehouse
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Explain the Test Ban treaty of 1963?
treaty which stopped testing of nuclear weapons above ground, under water or in outer space, could only take place underground.
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Explain the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 1968? (Detente)
Superpowers agreed not to sell nuclear technology to other countries.
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Why did France leave NATO?
Because president Charles de Gauelle of France did not want to have to fight a nuclear war on the side of Ameriva and so left in 1966
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Which country was the richest Soviet satellite state?
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Who was the unpopular Czech puppet leader?
Antonin Novotny
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Why was Antonin Novotny (czech) hated?
He did exactly what the soviet union said and introduced no new reforms
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When did Alexander Dubcek, leading reformer become the leader of the communist party?
5th January 1968 and the people of Czech hated Novotiny, Breznev saw this and so he sacked him, replacing him with General Svoboda
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What did Dubcek want create?
"Socialism with a human face "
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Why was Brezhnev terrifed about the Prague Spring Reforms?
He was afraid it would lead to Czechoslovakia leaving the Warsaw pact.
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What was "Operation Danube"?
It was the invasion of Czechoslovakia on the 20th of August 1968, between 200,000- 400,000 Warsaw Pact trooops invaded Czech from Soviet Union, East Germnay, Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland.
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Why did countries from the Warsaw pact invade and not just the Soviet Union?
This was so the Soviet Union alone could not be blamed for the invasion.
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Why were the deaths and injuries from the invasion of Czechoslovakia so low? (under 10, compared to Hungarian uprising of 2,500 deaths in 1956)
Dubcek had urged the czech army and people not to retaliate.
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What did Brezhnev enforce after the invasion of Czechoslovakia?
Brezhnev Doctrine
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What were the main policies of the Brezhnev Doctrine?
1. All Warsaw Pact countries had to stay in the Warsaw Pact. 2. All countries in Eastern Europe could have only 1 political party; the Communist party. 2. The Soviet Union would invade any Communist country that tried to break free from Communism.
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Which communist countries didn't support the invasion of Czechoslovakia?
Romania-refused to send troops to invade Czech and began to distance itself from the Soviet Union. Alabania- Was disgusted by the invasion and left the Warsaw pact in 1968. China(communist since 1949)-disgusted and a rivalry developed with the SU.
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Why didn't the invasion of Czechoslovakia cause an end to Detente?
America was preoccupied witht the war in Vietnam and Czechoslovakia was already communist.
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What was Eurocommunism?
a movement where angry communist parties in Italy and France who felt the invasion was wrong declared themselves independant of the Soviet Communist party.
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What was the aim of the Grand Alliance?


To defeat Hitler and the Nazis

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When was Teheran Conference?


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Who was at the Teheran Conference?


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What did Britain and USA agree at the Teheran Conference


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