The Cold War Revision notes

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Dem_co
  • Created on: 01-02-16 19:20
When was the Grand Alliance set up?
1941
1 of 127
What was the aim of the Grand Alliance?
To defeat Hitler and the Nazis
2 of 127
When was Teheran Conference?
November 1943
3 of 127
Who was at the Teheran Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin
4 of 127
What did Britain and USA agree at the Teheran Conference
Second Front to ease the pressure on the Soviet Union
5 of 127
What did the Soviet Union promise at the Teheran Conference?
to help fight JAPAN after defeating Germany
6 of 127
When was the Yalta Conference?
Feburary 1945
7 of 127
Who was at the Yalta Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
8 of 127
What happend to Germany/Berlin at the Yalta Conference?
It was divided into four zones controlled by Britain, France, SU & America
9 of 127
What does Stalin allow at the Yalta Conference?
Free elections in Eastern Europe.
10 of 127
Give an example of how stalin was obsessed with security?
He wanted to change Poland's borders and so gained Eastern Poland as a Buffer zone and the rest of Poland gaining land from Germany as compensation.
11 of 127
What was set up to replace the League of Nations?
League of Nations
12 of 127
Why and how did Stalin want to cripple Germany?
because of the 26 million Soviet deaths, Stalin wanted to cripple Germany by forcing them to pay reperations of $10 billion
13 of 127
When was the Potsdam conference?
July 1945
14 of 127
Who was at the Potsdam Conference
Truman, Stalin and Attlee
15 of 127
What happened to the Nazi party and Nazi war criminals at the Potsdam Conference?
Nazi party dissolved and War criminals put on trial at Nuremberg.
16 of 127
What was Germany granted at the Potsdam Conference?
Free elections
17 of 127
What did the Soviet Union gain in terms of reperations at the Potsdam conference and why?
The got a quarter of the industrial goods made in western zones because of the 26 million deaths and as they had the poorer zone of Germany with less industry.
18 of 127
Why do relations get worse at the Potsdam Conference?
New American President Truman wanted to "Get tough on Russia" (known as the "Iron fist"
19 of 127
What did Stalin refuse at the Potsdam Conference?
They refused have free elections in eastern europe, eg. imposed Communist goverment on Poland.
20 of 127
Why was there less keeping the "Big Three" together?
They had defeated Germany
21 of 127
BREAKDOWN IN THE GRAND ALLIANCE
BREAKDOWN IN THE GRAND ALLIANCE
22 of 127
When and where did the Iron Curtain speech take place?
March 1946 and in America.
23 of 127
What is the quote from Churchill's iron curtain speech? & meaning?
"An Iron curtain had descended across the continent" he meant that Europe had been divided into communist Eastern Europe.
24 of 127
What countries did the Soviet Union take over?
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany
25 of 127
Give reasons for why Stalin took over Eastern Europe?
1.Wanted a buffer zone of countries to protect the Soviet Union from attack from capitalist Europe. 2 Stalin didn't trust the the West 3. He wanted compensation for 26 million deaths 4.He wanted to spread communism
26 of 127
Who sent the Long Telegram of 1946 and what did it report?
Geroge Kennan and it stated that Stalin was building up Soviet military power and had made a speech calling for the destruction of Capitalism
27 of 127
Who sent the Novikov Telgram of 1946 and what did it report?
Soviet AMBASSADOR, reported that America wanted to dominate the world and that American public were being prepared for war against the Societ Union.
28 of 127
GRAND ALLIANCE NOW OVER
GRAND ALLIANCE NOW OVER
29 of 127
In Greece February 1947, what were the British Goverment no longer capable of affording?
The costs to support the Greek government which was fighting a civil war against communists.
30 of 127
How much did America give to the Greek goverement to help the royalists in Greece defeat the Communists?
$400 million
31 of 127
What idea did the donation of $400 million dollars give Truman?
It gave him the idea that he could contain the spread of communism around the world.
32 of 127
When was the Truman Doctine?
March 1947
33 of 127
In the Truman Doctrine what did President Truman promise?
To help any country under threat from Communism
34 of 127
What did the Truman Doctrine show about the USA?
1. Dropped Policy of Isolation. 2.Saw themselves as the world's peace keepers and not the UN 3.They feared soviet expansion and now tried a policy of containment 4.World now divided (capitalism vs communism)
35 of 127
In what year and what month was the Marshall Plan set up?
March 1947
36 of 127
Why did Truman set up the the Marshall plan?
To help Europe rebuild after second world war and ensure that countries who accepted the money, would buy American goods. Also stop other countries becoming communist.
37 of 127
Who was the Marshall plan names after?
Secretary of State George C Marshall
38 of 127
Althoiugh the Marshall plan was offered to all Europeon countries why did not all accept?
Stalin wouldn't allow countries in Easter Europe to accept the money as he viewed it as a CAPITALIST BRIBE.
39 of 127
What would you have to join if you accepted the money?
The OEEC where America told tem how to spend the money. This meant america could influence those countries and ensure they remained loyal to America .
40 of 127
How many countries accpeted $13.75 billion of Marshall aid?
16
41 of 127
How did Churchill describe the Marshall Plan?
"The most unselfish act in history" but really showed America would do anything to stop the spread of communism.
42 of 127
Why was Cominform set up in 1947?
Set up by Stalin to control comunist parties over Europe. Soviet respons to the Truman doctrine.
43 of 127
What was Cominform also used for?
To make sure all the giveremnts in the satellite states were loyal to Stalin, following Soviet foreign policy and economic policies e.g by 1953 5% of the population in Hungary were imprisoned for not staying loyal to STALIN.
44 of 127
What was Stalin's version of Marshall aid called and what year was it set up
Comecon and 1949
45 of 127
How did stalin use Comecon to control the economies in eastern europe?
e.g Czechoslovakia and East Germany were ordered to focus on Heavy industry (e.g coal and steel) whilst Romania, Hungary and Bugaria were told to focus on farming.
46 of 127
What was the name given to France, Britain and America's zones which united in 1947?
Trizonia
47 of 127
What was the name of the new currency which Trizonia had set up, in 1948?
Deutschmark
48 of 127
Why did Stalin not want a strong west?
As they could attack the Soviet Union
49 of 127
Explain the first major flashpoint of the Cold war? (June 1948-May 1949)
Stalin stopped food and supplies getting into West Berlin by road rail and canal. He wanted West Berlin to surrender to the SU so the new government of Trizonia, based in West Berlin wouldn't be able to Control its territory in west germany.BerlinBlo
50 of 127
Give examples of items dropped onto WEST BERLIN during the Berlin airlift?
Food, clothing, oil and building supplies.
51 of 127
How frequently were planes dropping supplies?
1 plane was dropping supplies every 3 minutes.
52 of 127
What was the total cost of the succssful Berlin airlift?
$224 million
53 of 127
As a result of the Berlin Blockade when Germany split up into two, what did these countires become known as?
West Germany became the Fedral republic of Germany(capitalist) & East Germany became the German Democratic Republic (communist)
54 of 127
When was NATO set up and by how many countries?
in 1949 and by 13 countries in the WEST.
55 of 127
Why was the military alliance (NATO) set up?
The west could no longer trust Stalin
56 of 127
What year did Stalin die and who was his replacement?
STalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev was his replacement in 1955
57 of 127
With Khrushchev as leader there was a period of good relations what was this called?
The Thaw
58 of 127
What did the policy of "co-existence" mean which Krushchev introduced?
This meant that he would not destroy the west but comepete with it .
59 of 127
Why was the Warsaw pact set up in in 1955?
As this was the year in which the Federal republic of Germany (west gerrmany) was allowed into NATO, the SU were threatened by a strong west and so set up the WARSAW PACT.
60 of 127
Which countries made up the Warsaw pact?
Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and East Germany
61 of 127
What did the Warsaw pact agree?
They agreed to protect any member country from attack by the West
62 of 127
In Khrushchev's secret speech in Febuary 1956 how did he give the impression that was a soft leader?
Khrushcev attacked Stalin's rule and released political prisoners
63 of 127
On the 23rd of October 1956 what happened in Budapest(Hungary)? why?
Fighting broke out and a statue of Stalin was pulled down. Khrushchev's "secret speech" gave hungarians hope that they could break free from Soviet control + fuel and bread shortages
64 of 127
Who was the hated puppet leader RAKOSI replaced by?
Immre Nagy
65 of 127
On the 4th of November 1956 how did Khruschev react to the Hungarian outburst?
He sent in 200,000 Soviet troops who killed 2,500 Hungarians and wounded 20,000. Nagy was arrested and hung in June 1958, causing 200,000 hungarians to flee to the west.
66 of 127
Why was Nagy killed and who was his replacement?
Nagy withdrew from the Warsaw pact (resulted in Khrushchev not allowing any country to leave) Nagy also held free elections. He was replaced by Kadar
67 of 127
Although America did not jump to Hungary's rescue (as they were already Communist) what did they do?
They gave food and medical aid worth $20 million and allowed 80,000 Hungarians to move to the USA.
68 of 127
Between 1949-1961 over how many people had escaped East Germany for a better life in the West?
over 2.7 million people
69 of 127
Describe the occupations of those who left east germany?
Young professionals such as doctors, teachers, scientists and engineers
70 of 127
What did the loss of the acedmic refugees become known as?
the brain drain
71 of 127
Give an example of the extent of the brain drain?
When the whole Maths department at the University of Leipzig (east germany) defected on one day
72 of 127
Why did so many factories only work half day during this period (1949-1961)?
becauase their workers kept defecting (leaving)
73 of 127
By January 1961 how many people a month were escaping to the West through West Berlin?
20,000 people a month
74 of 127
What month and year was the wall built?
August 1961
75 of 127
What could Khrushchev not allow to continue in East Germany?
West Berlin's influence as it advertised captilism(east germans envied lifestyle because they saw it so close to them) and West Berlin would be used as spying headquarters for the West.
76 of 127
In November 1958 what did Khrushchev declare?
That the whole city of Berlin belonged to East Germany and gave American troops 6 months to withdraw
77 of 127
Name both of the failed Summits?
Geneva Summit and Camp David Summit of 1959
78 of 127
What happened in the Geneva Summit of 1959?
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met but could not reach an agreement
79 of 127
What happened at the Camp David Summit 1959?
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met at Camp David in America (first time a soviet President had been to the usa) but again no agreement was reached
80 of 127
Why was the Paris Conference of 1960 a disaster?
As it follwed the U2 Spy plane incident and Khrushchev used this as an exucse to storm out of the meeting.
81 of 127
What happened during U2 Spy plane Incident of 1st May 1960?
An American spy plane was shot down over Russia and the American Pilot, Gary Powers was arrested. America lied and said it was a weather plane but then admitted.
82 of 127
After Khrushchev and Kennedy met at the Vienna conference of 1961, what actions did Kennedy take?
He ordered and extra $3.2 billion of money be spent on defence and spent an extra $207 million on building nuclear fallout shelters.
83 of 127
What did pupper leader of German Democratic Republic , Walter Ulbricht want after the Vienna Conference?
a wall built
84 of 127
On what date was a wall built all the way around West Berlin?
13th August 1961
85 of 127
Before 1959 who ruled Cuba?
Dictator General Batista
86 of 127
How many prostititutes were there in Havana (Captial Cuba)?
14,000
87 of 127
Give examples of American ownership in Cuba?
America owned 90% of the phone and electric supply, 50% of the railways, 40% of all sugar production and all of the oil refineries.
88 of 127
In 1959 who led a revolution in Cuba?
Fidel Catro did with the help of Che Guevera
89 of 127
With Fidel Catstro and Che Guevera in power what did they do (America)
took back the land from American businesses and kicked the Mafia out of Havana
90 of 127
What did America do in response to Fidel Castro and Che Guevera's actions?
America stopped buying sugar in 1960.
91 of 127
Why did the SU agree to buy 1 million tonnes of Cuban sugar and donate $100 million in aid?
The SU noticed that Cuba was 90 miles away from the coast of amerca, and if Khrushchev placed atomic bombs on Cuba they would have the ability to destroy every city apart from the far west(LA, San Fran & Seattle)
92 of 127
What was the Bay of Pigs (April 1961)?
It was when the American CIA organised and invasion of Cuba by 1,300 Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs
93 of 127
What occured during the Bay of Pigs (April 1961)?
Kennedy backed the planned invasion & gave $45million to fund it, but the ships crashed on rocks & the exiles were met by 20,000 Cuban troops. USA had to give Cuba $53 million paid in baby food, medicine and medical equipment to get the exiles releas
94 of 127
How did the Bay of Pigs make Kennedy appear ?
It made him look foolish and was now seen as young and inexperienced by Khrushchec.
95 of 127
A month after the Bay of Pigs what happened in Cuba?
Castro anounced that Cuba was now a communist country.
96 of 127
On the 25th September 1962 what did Khrushchev do?
Khrushchev sent 114 Soviet ships to Cuba carrying a secret cargo, including nuclear warheads and long range missiles.
97 of 127
What happened 14th October 1962?
an American U2 spy plane took photographs which showed Soviet nuclear bases being built on Cuba with the ability to destroy America, also 20 Soviet ships sailing to Cuba with nuclear missiles.
98 of 127
When was the naval blockade in Cuba?
20th October 1962
99 of 127
How many american ships surrounded Cuba during the naval blockade?
180
100 of 127
During the Cuban Missiles Cris what two groups were both Kennedy and Khrushchev's advisors divided into?
Hawks (wanted war) and doves (wanted peace)
101 of 127
How did Khrushchev react to the naval blockade, what did he do?
Khrushchev wrote a letter complaining that America had no right to interfere in Cuba's politics.The soviet ships slpwed down on the 24th October 1962
102 of 127
Krushchev sent 2 telegrams when was the first one sent?
Telegram 1- 26th October 1962
103 of 127
What did the first Telegram say?
If America stops the blockade the nuclear bases will be removed.
104 of 127
When was the second Telegram sent?
27th October 1962
105 of 127
What did the second Telegram say?
Khruschev states the Soviet Union will remove the missile bases if America stops the blockade and removes their nuclear missiles from Turkey
106 of 127
What does Kennedy do in response of the Telegrams?
Kennedy accepts the first telegram publicly but not the second one instead her accepts in secret and America removes weapons from Turkey.
107 of 127
What were the results of the Cuban Missiles Crisis?
Khrushchev seen as backing down, he is sacked in 1964. Kennedy's reputation is improved. Detente.
108 of 127
Who was Krushchev replaced with?
Leonid Brezhnev
109 of 127
Whos was Hot-line of 1963 set up between?
Kremlin and Whitehouse
110 of 127
Explain the Test Ban treaty of 1963?
treaty which stopped testing of nuclear weapons above ground, under water or in outer space, could only take place underground.
111 of 127
Explain the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 1968? (Detente)
Superpowers agreed not to sell nuclear technology to other countries.
112 of 127
Why did France leave NATO?
Because president Charles de Gauelle of France did not want to have to fight a nuclear war on the side of Ameriva and so left in 1966
113 of 127
Which country was the richest Soviet satellite state?
Czechoslovakia
114 of 127
Who was the unpopular Czech puppet leader?
Antonin Novotny
115 of 127
Why was Antonin Novotny (czech) hated?
He did exactly what the soviet union said and introduced no new reforms
116 of 127
When did Alexander Dubcek, leading reformer become the leader of the communist party?
5th January 1968 and the people of Czech hated Novotiny, Breznev saw this and so he sacked him, replacing him with General Svoboda
117 of 127
What did Dubcek want create?
"Socialism with a human face "
118 of 127
Why was Brezhnev terrifed about the Prague Spring Reforms?
He was afraid it would lead to Czechoslovakia leaving the Warsaw pact.
119 of 127
What was "Operation Danube"?
It was the invasion of Czechoslovakia on the 20th of August 1968, between 200,000- 400,000 Warsaw Pact trooops invaded Czech from Soviet Union, East Germnay, Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland.
120 of 127
Why did countries from the Warsaw pact invade and not just the Soviet Union?
This was so the Soviet Union alone could not be blamed for the invasion.
121 of 127
Why were the deaths and injuries from the invasion of Czechoslovakia so low? (under 10, compared to Hungarian uprising of 2,500 deaths in 1956)
Dubcek had urged the czech army and people not to retaliate.
122 of 127
What did Brezhnev enforce after the invasion of Czechoslovakia?
Brezhnev Doctrine
123 of 127
What were the main policies of the Brezhnev Doctrine?
1. All Warsaw Pact countries had to stay in the Warsaw Pact. 2. All countries in Eastern Europe could have only 1 political party; the Communist party. 2. The Soviet Union would invade any Communist country that tried to break free from Communism.
124 of 127
Which communist countries didn't support the invasion of Czechoslovakia?
Romania-refused to send troops to invade Czech and began to distance itself from the Soviet Union. Alabania- Was disgusted by the invasion and left the Warsaw pact in 1968. China(communist since 1949)-disgusted and a rivalry developed with the SU.
125 of 127
Why didn't the invasion of Czechoslovakia cause an end to Detente?
America was preoccupied witht the war in Vietnam and Czechoslovakia was already communist.
126 of 127
What was Eurocommunism?
a movement where angry communist parties in Italy and France who felt the invasion was wrong declared themselves independant of the Soviet Communist party.
127 of 127

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the aim of the Grand Alliance?

Back

To defeat Hitler and the Nazis

Card 3

Front

When was Teheran Conference?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who was at the Teheran Conference?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Britain and USA agree at the Teheran Conference

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The Cold War resources »