The Cold War

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Ideology during the origins of the cold war (1945-49)
Increasing important. Kennan Telegram & truman Doctrine both focused on Soviets ideological aims. Cominform set up to spread communism. Lang became ideological & propaganda- U.S stressed as exploitative & fascist, USSR stressed as evil & a threat
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Economic systems during the origins of the cold war (1945-1949)
Important in origins- both sides set up eco systems in spheres of influence. Marshall plan designed to Western govs to resist communism> allow U.S to get more markets- seen as American imperialism> intensified cold war- strong response from Soviets
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Security/ Arms race during the origins of the cold war (1945-49)
Soviets were working to gain A-bomb so arms race was not a key factor in origin
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Gaining spheres of influence/ Empire building during the origins of the cold war (1945-49)
for soviets this was key during this period- building up soviet satellite states. West responds w/ eco & military sphere of influence in Europe w/ Marshall Plan & NATO
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Ideology during 1949-1985
Containment + domino effect- key for U.S foreign policy, reinforced by McCarthyism & fear of communism in U.S. Key reasons for Vietnam involvement to 'protect' EU people (downplayed during detente realpolitik). Plays key role in 2nd cold war & lang
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Gaining Spheres of influence/ Empire building 1949-1985
China becomes communist & North attacks South Korea- U.S sees Soviet sphere of influence. Domino effect> US tries to stop USSR influence spread & build own influence. Brezhnevs justifies continued Soviet control in Eastern bloc
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Gaining Spheres of influence/Empire building 1985-1989
Reagan attempts to extent U.S sphere of influence in Central America through Reagan Doctrine. Soviet sphere of influence collapse w/ revolutions of 1989
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Ideology during 1985-89
Ideology becomes less important- Reagan & Gorbachev find common ground. USSR moves away from the Stalinist legacy in both political & eco spheres
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Economic systems during 1949-1985
Eco aid becomes key tool in securing 3rd world countries for USA and USSR. Soviet eco aid: Egypt, Angola, Ethiopia &Cuba. U.S aid:right wing anti communist govs: Taiwan, Thailand Vietnam & Chile
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Security/Arms race during 1949-1985
Arms race:key role in tension & hostility- aim to stay ahead in technology & nom of weapons. Both sides accepted MAD theory
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Security/Arms race during 1985-1989
Plays key role in end of the Cold War- spreading on nuclear weapons helps to bankrupt Soviet Union
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Economic systems during 1985-1989
Key role in end of cold war- Soviet economic system on the verge of collapse
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Containment
1949- Truman. Policy allowed communism to exist where it already is but not spread. Did through eco and humanitarian aid, not military action. Showed democracy better than communism. (Democracy GIVES. Communism TAKES)
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"Iron Curtain"
1946. term used by Winston Churchill in speech describing Soviet Union's isolation policy during the Cold War. Calls communism a horrible form of gov>Stalin takes as a direct threat and begins a milit
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Truman Doctrine
1947. Truman's policy providing eco aid to any country threatened by communism. Alternative to war. helped Greece and Turkey- problem was the law was too specific.
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Harry Truman
33rd president of US
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Marshall Plan
1947. ALL European nations resisting effects of "poverty, hunger, desperation and chaos" receive funding from the US. Was successful.
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Berlin Blockade
1948-49. Soviets blocked main entrance into West Berlin in attempt to starve out allies in Berlin to gain supremacy. Failed> just airlifted supplies
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Berlin Airlift
327 day military operation that brought supplies into West Berlin by air during the Berlin Blockade
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NATO
1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. alliance to defend against soviets. First US peacetime military alliance in history, formal end to US isolationism.
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Dwight D Eisenhower
Republican candidate in the 1952 election. Former WWII general. Vice president was Richard Nixon.
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1945- Wartime conferences
Yalta and Potsdam
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How did Germany affect the Cold War (8)
WWII defeat '45: powerful EU state no longer existed- led to power vacuum. Wartime conferences (Berlin problems), .'46 Iron Curtain .'49 NATO formed (due to Berlin Crisis) 58Berlin ultimatum 61Berlin Wall USSR deployed SS20s in cent. EU, comm collaps
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When and what was Khrushnev's fist Berlin ultimatum?
demanded that all foreign occupying powers must leave Berlin within 6 months. If not, USSR would hand control of Berlin over to Eastern Germany> ignored and failed
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When and why was the Berlin Wall erected?
1961: Migration from E Germany threatened the state's existence> some ways superpower relations less problematic after- gap closed & spheres of influence clearly demarcated
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What happened in 1989 concerning E Germany? (2)
Collapse of communism in E Germany & Berlin Wall knocked down Nov 9-10
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What happened during 1990 concerning E Germany?(3)
Free Elections> Christian Democrats won w/ 48%. Two Plus Four Agreement: 4 occupying powers & two states accepted reunification, Reunification of Germany Oct
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What was containment?
US policy of targeted intervention to prevent the spread of Communism
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Examples of containment (5)
Truman Doctrine 1947, Marshall Plan 1947, NATO 1949, NSC-66 (US govt memo traced all communism back to Moscow & empathized military increase spending needed), 1950 Korea (Vietnam, Taiwan)
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What was Brinkmanship?
Using threat of 'massive retaliation' to achieve containment, Threat of nuclear war to intimidate opponent into backing down, "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war" (Dulles)
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Examples of Brinkmanship (2)
Threat of nuclear weapons against China to protect Taiwan, Cuba
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Leaders of containment (5)
Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy (flexible Response), Johnson. Nixon ended it with withdrawal from Vietnam
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How successful was containment?(5)
Successful in Europe & Korea, Less successful in Asia generally-global spread, Unsuccessful in Vietnam- very costly, fueled the arms race
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Leaders of Brinkmanship (3)
Eisenhower and Dulles, Kennedy
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Evaluation of Brinkmanship (2)
Fueled (&fueled by) arms race & increased tensions, Reached peak in Cuba Missile Crisis- led to thaw
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What was Peaceful Co-Existence?
Krushchev's adaptation of Malenkov's 'New Course'-Belief that Capitalism &Communism should accept each others continued existence rather than attempt to destroy each other & risk nuclear holocaust
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Examples of Peaceful co-existence (8)
Geneva Summit 1955, Secret Speech 56, Hungarian Uprising 56, Sputnik 57, Khrushchev USA visit 59, Paris peace conferenc/ U2 incident 60, Berlin Crisis 61, Cuba 62
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Leaders of peaceful co-existence (3)
Khrushchev (Eisenhower/ Kennedy)
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Evaluation of peaceful co-existence
Not very peaceful- esp. Cuba & Berlin BUT direct conflict avoided, so in that sense in succeeded. Ushered in era of detente
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What was Detente?
relaxation of tensions
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Examples of detente (7)
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 1972, Agreements over Germany 1970-2, Ostpolitik, Helsinki Agreement 1975. SALT I-Nixon & Brezhnev visits SALT II not ratified by US> ended due to tensions in Africa and Afghanistan
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Leaders of Detente (3)
Brezhnev, Nixon (68), Carter (76)
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What is the post-revisionist view of detente?
That it was successful- Nixon & Kissingers autobiographies agree; Gaddis argues it was about stabilising the Cold war not ending it & it achieved that
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What is the revisionist view of detente?
R Piper: argues it prolonged the Cold War, allowed USSR to keep going & access western technology. Pipers argues Cold war ended due to hard line policies later
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Economic systems during the origins of the cold war (1945-1949)

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Important in origins- both sides set up eco systems in spheres of influence. Marshall plan designed to Western govs to resist communism> allow U.S to get more markets- seen as American imperialism> intensified cold war- strong response from Soviets

Card 3

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Security/ Arms race during the origins of the cold war (1945-49)

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Gaining spheres of influence/ Empire building during the origins of the cold war (1945-49)

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Card 5

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Ideology during 1949-1985

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