The Cold War

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  • Created by: lh1002
  • Created on: 20-05-16 21:15
What is a cold war?
A war waged between an enemy by every means short of actually fighting.
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When did The Cold War take place?
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What was the Grand Alliance?
An alliance made during WW2, which joined together the United States (led by Franklin Roosevelt), the Soviet Union (led by Joseph Stalin) and Great Britain (led by Winston Churchill).
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When and why was the Grand Alliance formed?
Formed in 1941 after Germany broke the Nazi-Soviet pact (non-aggression pact signed in 1939)
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What were the three conferences and when did they take place?
Tehran- Nov 1943, Yalta- Feb 1945, Potsdam- July 1945
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What was agreed at the Tehran conference?
Britain and the USA would open a 'second front' by attacking Germany, this eases pressure on the Eastern front where the Soviets were suffering losses; Stalin would declare war on Japan and supply troops to help USA after WW2
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What was discussed at the Tehran conference?
There was talk of an international body to sort things instead of war- United Nations; The Big Three discussed what would happen to Germany- giving land to Poland, aim to weaken Germany etc.
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What was disagreed on at the Tehran conference?
USA & USSR agree with second front but Britain want it in a different place; tension between USA & Britain- Roosevelt viewed British colonialism as more of a threat to world peace than the USSR.
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What was agreed on at the Yalta conference?
Talk of Germany splitting into four zones; Germany to pay reparations; A government to be set up in Poland with communists and non-communists; free elections in the countries of eastern Europe; USSR would help against Japan when Germany was defeated.
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What was disagreed on at the Yalta conference?
Roosevelt criticised by USA for 'giving' Eastern Europe to Stalin and allowing USSR to fight Japan; Churchill objected to $10 billion figure reparations which Stalin had proposed- Roosevelt & Churchill were worried the USSR would become too powerful
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What circumstances had changed between the Yalta and Potsdam conferences?
Change of personnel (Roosevelt - Truman, Churchill - Attlee); Germany had surrendered; USA scientists had created an atomic bomb; United Nations was created; different relations between leaders- tensions are higher
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What was agreed at the Potsdam conference?
To set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany
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What was disagreed on at the Potsdam conference?
Boundaries of 4 zones; reparations USSR wanted- could take whatever from Soviet zone & 10% of industrial equipment of others- Britain & US thought too high; Stalin arrested Polish non-communist leader;Truman dropped atomic bomb without Stalin
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What was the name of the government proposed at Yalta for Poland?
Government of National Unity- comprising both communists and non-communists.
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What was the agreement called which allowed free elections in Eastern Europe?
The Declaration of Liberated Europe
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What were the huge differences between the USA and the USSR?
America was capitalist, Russia was communist; America had freedom and a two-party democracy, Russia had secret police and a one-party state; America wanted Germany to recover as a trading partner, Russia wanted to weaken Germany
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Why might differences between the USA and the USSR lead to conflict?
Had little in common- difficult to form lasting relationship; opinion polls before WW2 showed US citizens trusted Communists less than the Nazis; USA is based on the 'American Dream' -improvement of life through hard work. Communism- 'Anti-American'
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What is ideology?
A system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic and political theory and policy
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What were the 4 freedoms?
Freedom of speech, of worship, freedom from want and fear- a USA propaganda poster to remind them what they are fighting for
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What are the main factors of communism?
One political party; belief in world revolution, encouraging communism in other countries; unable to change their government; everyone is equal; no private industries or businesses- all owned by state; censorship of media
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What are the main factors of capitalism?
Several parties- voters may choose and change their government; divide between the rich and poor; spread influence to other countries to encourage trade and investment; most industries and business privately owned; little censorship of media
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What are the similarities between the countries that became communist after the war?
They all became communist around the same time; all countries would have had Russian occupation during WW2
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What are the differences between the countries that became communist after the war?
Yugoslavia was independent- communist but didn't follow USSR; East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania were on the opposite side to Russia in WW2 before becoming communist.
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What does the term 'Iron Curtain' in Churchill's speech refer to?
The imaginary boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of WW2 in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. It symbolised efforts by the USSR to block itself and its controlled states from open contact with the west.
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What was Cominform?
An alliance set up in 1947 in which every communist party in Europe joined, it allowed Stalin to control the communists and combat 'dollar imperialism'
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Why was Cominform set up?
Stalin hated Marshall aid, he viewed it as 'dollar imperialism' and forbade all communist countries asking for it so he set up Cominform.
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What is dollar imperialism?
America being able to control countries with money
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What is a doctrine?
A set of beliefs you intend to follow
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What is congress?
American parliment
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
USA became more alarmed by growth of Soviet power. British told Truman they could no longer afford to keep soldiers in Greece so Truman took over. In March 1947, he told the congress it was its job to stop communism getting stronger- containment
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What was the Marshall Plan?
In June 1947, George Marshall was sent to Europe, he came back saying every country was so poor they could become communist so suggested $17 billion of aid should be given to boost Europe's economy to prevent communism
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What was NATO?
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, created in 1949 by 13 Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
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Who were the superpowers?
USA and Soviet Union
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When did the Berlin Blockade take place?
24 June 1948 - 12 May 1949
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Why did Stalin not want the allies in Berlin?
He wanted to keep Germany weak- he didn't want to trade with other zones whereas others encouraged economic recovery and introduced new currency; USSR were communist and didn't want to get caught up in the capitalist way of life or become vulnerable
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What happened on the 24th of June 1948?
Stalin cut off all rail and road links to west Berlin - the Berlin Blockade.
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What happened as a result of Stalin creating the Berlin Blockade?
The west saw this as an attempt to starve Berlin into surrender, so they decided to supply west Berlin by air. During this time, 275,000 planes transported 1.5 million tons of supplies and a plane landed every three minutes- the airlift
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How long did the Berlin Blockade last?
318 days
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What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade and Airlift?
Increased the East-West rivalry; confirmed the divisions of Germany; led to the creation of NATO; led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact 1955; Germany split into 2- The federal republic of Germany (West) & the German democratic republic (East)
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What were some of the long-term causes of the Berlin Blockade?
Yalta/Potsdam agreements- dividing Germany & Berlin into 4 zones; USSR left minority communist groups in control of zone; West wanted economic recovery, East wanted to keep Germany weak; Stalin was concerned capitalist life would be an influence
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What were some of the short-term causes of the Berlin Blockade?
Jan 1947- US & British zones made Bizonia; allied control commission (set up to manage all zones) falling apart- USSR complained allied attitudes made it unworkable; Apr 1948- Marshall aid, traffic to Berlin searched; W zones wanted new West Germany
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What was the domino theory?
The belief that if one nation fell to communism, others would soon follow
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When was the Korean war?
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What was the anti-communist hysteria?
The people in the US were scared of the spread of communism throughout the world. People were 'blacklisted' if suspected of being communist
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What was the arms race?
The US and the Soviet Union became engaged in a nuclear arms race. They both spent billions and billions of dollars trying to build up huge stockpiles of nuclear weapons. In 1953 the US spent $49.6bn .
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What was the Warsaw pact?
A treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union signed in 1955 which stated they would come to aid of others if under foreign aggression
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Why was the Warsaw pact formed?
In 1955 West Germany was allowed to join NATO and have an army and air force. The USSR saw this as a threat that could lead to a new, strong and threatening Germany.
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What was the Korean war?
Armed forces from communist North Korea smash into South Korea, setting off the Korean War. The US, acting under the 'influence' of the United Nations, quickly sprang to the defense of South Korea and fought a bloody and frustrating war for 3 years
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Why was NATO formed?
The Berlin crisis had confirmed Truman's commitment to containment in Europe. It highlighted the threat of the USSR to Western Europe who needed the US. In April 1949, NATO was signed by 13 countries.
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What were some of the consequences of NATO?
USA committed to the defense of Europe; Stalin didn't believe it was a defensive alliance- believed it was aimed against the USSR; intensified the arms race; within 6 years the Warsaw Pact was set up; eventually the US set up missile bases in Europe
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In the arms race when were the important bombs used?
Atomic bomb: US- 1945, USSR- 1949; Hydrogen bomb: US- 1952, USSR- 1953; Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile: US- 1957, USSR- 1957
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What does MAD stand for and what did it do?
Mutually Assured Destruction- a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause destruction of both the attacker and the defender
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What was Comecon?
Set up by Stalin to help co-ordinate the production and trade of Eastern European countries
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Where and when did Churchill make his 'Iron Curtain' speech?
Fulton Missouri, USA, 1946
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Who was Hungary's dictator 1949-56?
Matayas Rakosi, Stalin's 'best pupil' or 'bald butcher'
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What did Hungarians resent about the restrictions imposed by new dictator, Matayas Rakosi?
Censorship/loss of freedom of speech; Russian language used; economy controlled by Comecon-trade on uneven terms; control by Soviet troops and officials- and having to pay for them
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What did the Hungarians live in fear of when Matayas Rakosi was in power and why?
The secret police (AVH) as it is estimated that 2000 were killed in 'purges' and 200,000 political opponents were imprisoned.
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What happened in February 1956?
The new leader, Khrushchev, made a secret speech stating he disliked the harshness of Stalin's rule and Hungary's Stalinist leader was forced to resign.
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What happened on October 24th 1956 and what happened as a result?
Imre Nagy took over as prime minister and was thought to be liberal. Nagy asked Khrushchev to move the Russian troops out. Khrushchev agreed and on 28 October 1956, the Russian army pulled out of Budapest.
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What happened on the 3rd November 1956?
Nagy broadcasted that Hungary would withdraw itself from the Warsaw pact. This pushed the Russians too far.
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What happened on the 4th November 1956?
Soviet tanks invaded Budapest to restore order and killed 4,000 (which was later 30,000). Thousands were imprisoned and 200,000 refugees fled to Austria. This lasted 10 days by which the order had been restored and the Soviet rule was re-established.
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What was the American response to the Hungarian revolt?
US President Eisenhower said "I feel with the Hungarian people," The American Secretary of State said "To all those suffering under communist slavery, let us say you can count on us" But America did nothing else.
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What was one of the main causes of the Hungarian revolt?
Khrushchev's policy of 'de-Stalinisation' caused problems in many Eastern European Communist countries, where people hated the hard-line Stalinist regimes that Russia had put in place.
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What were some of the effects of the Hungarian revolt?
Repression in Hungary; Russia stayed in control behind the Iron Curtain; Polarisation of the Cold War
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When was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
17th April 1961
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What happened in the Bay of Pigs invasion?
Eisenhower had plan to use Cuban exiles to invade Cuba; 1500 exiles trained by CIA 'La Brigada 2506'; JFK did plan; US planes attacked airbases, 15th April; 16th April bombing called off; Exiles faced 20,000 Cuban soldiers- 100 killed, 1100 caught
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What were the consequences of the Bay of Pigs invasion?
Humiliation for US/JFK; Castro's position strengthened; JFK determined to resist communism; developing countries saw US as imperialist; US begins Operation Mongoose- covert operations to remove Castro.
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