The cognitive approach

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What does the cognitive approach study?
Information processing
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How do cognitive psychologists study informational processing?
Through inferring the process from the exhibited behaviour
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What is a schema?
A framework that tells us how we should act in certain situations based on past experiences.
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Why are schemata useful?
Scheata alow us to bypass lots of cognitive processing that we would otherwise need to carry out
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How can schemata by unhelpful?
Schemas may lead us to exclude anything that doesn't conform to our existing beliefs by filling in the gaps wit what we expect something to be like
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How can Schemata lead to stereotyping?
Because of schemas fill in the gaps based on passed experiences it is easy to form opinions of people dependig on their ethnicity. These may be hard to disconfirm even in the light of new evidence
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What are two examples of a theoretical model?
WMM or MSM
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How are these usually presented?
As diagrams with boxes and arrows showing a flow of information
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"Once these models are created they cannot be added to" True or False?
False - Baddelley added the epsiodic buffer to the 1974 WMM in 2000
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How is a computer model useful?
Because it allows us to simulate information coding such as memory - allowing for inputs (senses) and outputs (behavior) with other tools like the RAM acting as memory
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What is are PET and fMRI scans an example of?
Non-invasive neuroimaging a form of congetive neural science that lets us study the living brain
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What can cognitive neuroscience show us?
Which parts of the brain are active during different emotions and or behaviors
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what did Burnett (2009) show?
When people are guilty there is activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain - an area associated with other social emotions
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E1 (strength) does the cognative approach have wide reaching applications?
Yes - The cognitive approach is used in different areas of psychology.
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E1: how does the cognitive approach help us understand social cognition?
It helps psychologists understand how we form impressions of people + errors and biases
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E1: how does the cognitive approach help us understand mental illenss?
It helps us tack how our psychopathology can affected by faulty thinking and lead to successful treatment of OCD and Depression
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E2: How is the cognetive approach scienttific?
It draws on objective data (studies and PET scans) to make conclusions about informational processes that are more scientific than Wundt's introspection
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E3: What makes humans different from computers?
Computers do not forget things, make mistakes, ignore information, have impulses or complex emotions.
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E4: What has been ignored by this approach?
Motivation and emotion. It can tell us why but not how things happen
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E4: what could explain the cognitive approaches overlooking of motivational proesses?
Other schools of psychology study it eg Freud (who ignored informational processes) + over reliance on informational processing analogies - motivation is irrelevant to computer simulations
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Card 2

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How do cognitive psychologists study informational processing?

Back

Through inferring the process from the exhibited behaviour

Card 3

Front

What is a schema?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are schemata useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How can schemata by unhelpful?

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