The Cell Lecture 9

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 17:45
Carbohydrates
general formula Cn(H2O)n, source of stored energy, transport stored energy, carbon skeletons for many other molecules
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Monosaccharides
simple sugars, bind in condensation reactions forming glycosidic linkages
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Diasaccharides
two simple sugars linked by covalent bonds
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Oligosaccharides
three to 20 monosaccharides
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Polysaccharides
hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides e.g. starch, glycogen
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Hexoses
six carbons
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Pentoses
five carbons
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Starch
storage of glucose in plants
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Glycogen
storage of glucose in animals
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Cellulose
very stable, good for structural components
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Lipids
non-polar hydrocarbons
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Phospholipids
structural role in cell membrane
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Carotenoids and chlorophylls
capture light energy in plants
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Steroids and modified fatty acids
hormones and vitamins
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Fats and oils
triglycerides composed of fatty acids and glycerol
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Fatty acid
nonpolar hydrocarbon with a polar carboxyl group, amphipathic (have opposing chemical properties)
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Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds between carbons
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Unsaturated fatty acids
some double bonds in carbon chain
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Monounsaturated
one double bond
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Polyunsaturated
more than one double bond
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Phospholipids
fatty acids bound to glycerol, phosphate group replaces one fatty acid
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Bioluminescence
endergonic reaction driven by ATP hydrolysis
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Fuels
molecules whose stored energy can be released for use
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3 metabolic pathways
glycolysis, cellular respiration, fermentation
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Glycolysis
glucose converted into pyruvate, takes place in cytosol, produces small amount of energy, involves 10 enzyme-catalysed reactions
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Cellular respiration
aerobic, converts pyruvate into H2O, CO2 + ATP
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Fermentation
anaerobic, converts pyruvate into lactic acids/ethanol, CO2 + ATP, occurs in cytosol
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O2 is present in glycolysis
glycolysis followed by pyruvate oxydation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
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O2 is not present in glycolysis
pyruvate from glycolysis is metabolized by fermentation
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Phosphorylation
addition of a phosphate group
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Substrate-level phosphorylation
enzyme-catalysed transfer of a phosphate group from a donor to ADP to form ATP
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Pyruvate oxidation
occurs in mitochondrial matrix, links glycolysis + citric acid cycle, pyruvate oxidised to acetate + CoA, forming acetyl CoA
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Acetyl CoA
starting point of citric acid cycle
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Citric Acid Cycle Inputs
acetyl CoA, water + electron carriers NAD+, FAD + GDP
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Citric Acid Cycle Outputs
CO2, reduced electron carriers + GTP (converts ADP->ATP)
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No O2 present in citric acid cycle
fermentation
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O2 present in citric acid cycle
oxidative phosphorylation
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Oxidative phosphorylation
ATP synthesised by reoxidation of electron carriers, two stages: electron transport, chemiosmosis
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Electron transport
electrons pass through respiratory chain, results in a proton concentration gradient in mitochondria
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Chemiosmosis
proteins diffuse back into mitochondria through ATP synthase
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Lactic acid fermentation
occurs in microorganisms and some muscle cells, pyruvate is electron acceptor, lactate is product and can build up
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Alcoholic fermentation
yeasts and some plant cells, requires 2 enzymes to metabolise pyruvate to ethanol, acetaldehyde reduced by NADH and H+, producing NAD+ and glycolysis continues
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Glycolysis + fermentation
2 ATP
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Glycolysis + cellular respiration
32 ATP
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Pathways
interrelated by shared substances + regulated by enzyme inhibition
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Polysaccharides
hydrolyzed to glucose, enters glycolysis + cellular respiration
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Proteins
hydrolyzed to amino acids - feed into glycolysis or citric acid cycle
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Anabolic interconversions
most catabolic reactions are reversible
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Gluconeogenesis
glucose formed from citric acid cycle and glycolysis intermediates
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Phosphofructokinase
main control point in glycolysis, allosterically inhibited by ATP
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Isocitrate dehydrogenase
main control point in citric acid cycle, inhibited by NADH and H+ and ATP
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

simple sugars, bind in condensation reactions forming glycosidic linkages

Back

Monosaccharides

Card 3

Front

two simple sugars linked by covalent bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

three to 20 monosaccharides

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides e.g. starch, glycogen

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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