The Cell Lecture 4

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 15:53
Fluid mosaic model
bilayered structures that perform physiological roles, form boundaries between cells/their environments, regulate molecule movement into/out of cells
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Transmembrane proteins
span entire length of membrane
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Peripheral membrane proteins
not embedded
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Unequal distribution of proteins
specialization of certain regions
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carbohydrate-bound lipid
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carbohydrate in membrane is covalently bonded to proteins, enable cells to be recognized by other cells/proteins
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Tight junctions
specialised, link adjacent epithelial cells, restrict migration of proteins and phospholipids, prevent substances moving through intercellular space.
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hold adjacent cells together, have dense plaques that are attached to cytoplasmic fibres + membrane cell adhesion proteins
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Membrane cell adhesion proteins
bind to the proteins of an adjacent cell
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Gap junctions
facilitate communication between cells, made up of specialized protein channels (connexons)
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span membranes of two adjacent cells, made of connexins
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snap together to generate a pore
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Diffusion rate is determined by...
temperature, size, charge + concentration gradient
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Primary active transport
cations e.g. sodium, potassium + calcium
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Secondary active transport
uses established gradients and uses ATP indirectly
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cell eating, common among unicellular protists, white blood cells
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cell drinking, involves vesicle formation
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Receptor-mediated endocytosis
receptor proteins exposed on outside of cell in 'coated pits', clathrin molecules form 'coat', after vesicle buds into cytoplasm, coat dissassembles, clathrin is recycled, vesicle transported to a variety of locations
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materials packaged in vesicles are secreted from the cell
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Membrane functions
information processing, energy transformation
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Inner mitochondrial membrane
converts energy of fuel molecules to energy in ATP
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Thylakoid membranes
involved in conversion of light energy in photosynthesis
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Card 2


span entire length of membrane


Transmembrane proteins

Card 3


not embedded


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Card 4


specialization of certain regions


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Card 5


carbohydrate-bound lipid


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