The Cell Lecture 23

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 23:01
Characteristics of the immune system
specificity, diversity, distinguishing self from nonself, immunological memory
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Specificity
antigens are organisms or molecules that are specifically recognized by T cell receptors and antibodies, sites on antigens that immune system recognises antigenic determinants or epitopes, host creates T cells and/or antibodies specific to antigenic
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Diversity
estimated human immune system responds to 10 million different antigenic determinants
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Distinguishing self from nonself
each normal cell in the body bears antigenic determinants, crucial that the immune system leave these alone
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Immunological memory
once exposed to a pathogen, immune system remembers it, future responses much more rapid
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Humoral immune response
antibodies recognise antigenic determinants by shape and composition, some antibodies are soluble proteins that travel free in blood and lymph, others are integral membrane proteins on B cells
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Pathogen
may be detected by B cell whose membrane antibody fits antigenic determinants, activates the B cell, makes multiple soluble copies of antibody
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Cellular immune response
able to detect antigens, reside within cells, destroys virus-infected or mutated cells, main component consists of T cells, have T cell receptors that recognize and bind specific antigenic determinants
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Activated lymphocyte
produces two types of daughter cells, effector and memory
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Effector B cells
plasma cells, produce antibodies
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Effector T cells
release cytokines
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Memory cells
live longer and retain the ability to divide quickly to produce more effector and memory cells
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Primary immune response
activated when the body encounters an antigen for the first time
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Secondary immune response
occurs when antigen appears again, more rapid
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Artificial immunity
acquired by introduction of antigenic determinants into the body
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Vaccination
inoculation with whole pathogens that have been modified
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Immunization
inoculation with antigenic proteins, pathogen fragments, or other molecular antigens
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B cells
basic component of the humoral immune system
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Cellular division and differentiation of B cell
stimulated by signal from activated helper T cell (Th), activated cells become plasma cells and memory cells
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Antibody molecules
proteins called immunoglobins, composed of one or more tetramers consisting of four polypeptide chains, two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains, disulfide bonds hold the chains together
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Constant regions
similar among the immunoglobins and determine the class of the antibody
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Variable regions
differ in the amino acid sequences at antigen-binding site, responsible for diversity
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Tetramer
each have two identical antigen-binding sites, antibody is bivalent
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Five immunoglobin classes
based on difference in the constant regions of heavy chain
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Class I MHC proteins
present on the surface of every nucleated cell in animals and present antigens from intracellular pathogens
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Class II MHC proteins
present on antigen presenting cells and present antigens processed in phagocytic pathway
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Foreign protein fragments
bound by class I MHC molecules and carried to the plasma membrane, Tc cells can check them, if cell has been infected by virus or has mutated, may present protein fragments that are not normally found in body, Tc cell proliferates and differentiate
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Card 2

Front

antigens are organisms or molecules that are specifically recognized by T cell receptors and antibodies, sites on antigens that immune system recognises antigenic determinants or epitopes, host creates T cells and/or antibodies specific to antigenic

Back

Specificity

Card 3

Front

estimated human immune system responds to 10 million different antigenic determinants

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

each normal cell in the body bears antigenic determinants, crucial that the immune system leave these alone

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

once exposed to a pathogen, immune system remembers it, future responses much more rapid

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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