The Cell Lecture 18

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 21:46
Neurons
supported by glial cells which outnumber neurons
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Glial cell functions
support and hold neurons in place, nourish and supply nutrients/O2, insulate neurons electrically, protect from pathogens
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Astrocytes
star-shaped glial cells, support and protect neurons, contribute to blood-brain barrier, protects brain from toxins/drugs, projections contact capillaries and neurons, role in inflammatory response in brain, control and co-ordinate other glial cell
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Blood brain barrier
brain blood vessels contain "continuous" capillaries, less permeable and leaky than other capillaries, made up of cell membranes, permeable to fat-soluble substances
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Schwann cells
PNS only, rich in lipid, produce myelin, wrap around axons and provide myelin sheath, characteristic white appearance, provides electrical insulation, enhances speed of electrical conductance
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Saltatory conduction
impulse 'jumps' between Nodes of Ranvier
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Oligodendrocytes
CNS only, myelin-producing, highly branched cell, possesses several axons and coat in myelin
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Multiple sclerosis
disease of myelin, immune system destroys sheath, reducing speed and success of nerve conduction, causes pins and needles, loss of motor function and visual disturbance
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Myelinating cell in CNS
oligodendrocyte 'promiscuous oligodendrocyte'
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Myelinating cell in PNS
schwann cell 'promiscuous axon'
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Microglia
small, immune cells, scavenge CNS for debris, act as phagocytes, primary immune defense in CNS, work closely with astrocytes.
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CNS damage
often results in permanent paralysis, astrocytes divide and become reactive, invade injury site and attract microglia to limit spread of injury and protect remaining CNS, forms 'glial scar', physical barrier to axon growth
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PNS damage
has capacity to repair and regenerate over time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

support and hold neurons in place, nourish and supply nutrients/O2, insulate neurons electrically, protect from pathogens

Back

Glial cell functions

Card 3

Front

star-shaped glial cells, support and protect neurons, contribute to blood-brain barrier, protects brain from toxins/drugs, projections contact capillaries and neurons, role in inflammatory response in brain, control and co-ordinate other glial cell

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

brain blood vessels contain "continuous" capillaries, less permeable and leaky than other capillaries, made up of cell membranes, permeable to fat-soluble substances

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

PNS only, rich in lipid, produce myelin, wrap around axons and provide myelin sheath, characteristic white appearance, provides electrical insulation, enhances speed of electrical conductance

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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