The Cell Lecture 17

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 21:21
Nervous system
communicates between different areas of organism, controls functions of the organism, regulates responses to conditions or sensory stimuli
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Nerve cells
excitable cells capable of producing and transmitting electrical impulses termed action potentials
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Action potential
transient change in the potential difference across the membrane of the neuron, flows down neuron, form basis of communication
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Soma
neuronal cell body, contains nucleus, site of protein synthesis
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Dendrites
many per neuron, receive incoming inputs from other neurons, converge in the soma
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Axon
carries impulse to next neuron in series, axon terminal branches, insulated with fatty coating (myelin sheath)
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Synapse
connection between axon terminal of one cell and dendrite of another cell, single axons connect to many dendrites, soma helps integrate inputs, huge number of synapses per neuron
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How do synapses communicate?
action potential travels down presynpatic cell, stimulates response of neurotransmitter across synapse, neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic cell, triggers action potential, impulse continues along cell
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Neurotransmitters
can be returned to axon terminals for reuse, transported into glial cells, inactivated by enzymes or can diffuse out of synaptic cleft
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Divergence
synpases expand signals down a certain nerve/tract divison
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Convergence
synapses channel signals down a certain nerve/tract division
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Afferent (incoming) neurons
carry information from periphery into nervous system, convert sensory information into action potentials using a variety of specialised receptors
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Efferenct (outgoing) neurons
carry commands from nervous system to effectors
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Interneurons (circuit/relay)
form connections between neurons, often afferent to efferent, increase nervous system complexity, store information
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Neuron in retina
fewer dendrites, fewer inputs, deals with vision
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Neuron in cerebellum
lots of dendrites, more inputs, controls intricate, complex movement
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Neuron in cortex
branched dendrites, long axon, wide, long distance communication
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Withdrawal reflex
simplest reflex, involves one afferent, one efferent and one interneuron, impulses travel to spinal cord, facilitates rapid response
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Neuronal networks
arrangements containing more than one nerve cell, vary in complexity
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Nerve net
simplest network, small numbers of connected neurons
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Nervous system
complex network, huge number of cells connected, many components
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Ganglia
paired or grouped neurons
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Brain
main processing headquarters, 2 hemispheres, largest pair of ganglia
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Spinal cord
thickened cluster of nerve fibres, connects parts of organism
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Anemone
simple nerve nets, lengthy projections, few connections, permits simple responses, reflexes and functions
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Earthworm
ganglia co-ordinate movement, anterior ganglia acts as control centre, co-ordinate more complex behaviour
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Squid
greater degree of integration, specialised ganglia control specific functions, stellate ganglia/nerve co-ordinate intricate movement, vision co-ordinated by large visual ganglia
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Human
most complex, huge number of nerve cells, ganglia and processing centres
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Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord, processing centre encased in bone
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Peripheral nervous system
information relay, communication system
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

excitable cells capable of producing and transmitting electrical impulses termed action potentials

Back

Nerve cells

Card 3

Front

transient change in the potential difference across the membrane of the neuron, flows down neuron, form basis of communication

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

neuronal cell body, contains nucleus, site of protein synthesis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

many per neuron, receive incoming inputs from other neurons, converge in the soma

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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