The Cell Lecture 15

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 20:54
Conditions for evolution
more organisms born than can survive, organisms vary in characteristics, variation is inherited, differences in reproduction and survival due to variation
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Two sources introduce variation
mutation and recombination
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Mendel: Wrinkled x Round
F1 all round, F2 round:wrinkled = 3:1
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DNA transmits genetic info. by...
digital code, duplication using old strands as templates, variation introduced during DNA replication
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Mutation
heritable change in the genetic information of an organism, caused by errors in DNA replication, external factors
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Mutagens
chemicals/ionising radiation which cause mutations
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Missense mutation
base replaced with another
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Nonsense mutation
triplet removed
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Insertion (frameshift)
base added in, extra
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Deletion (frameshift)
base removed
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Sickle-cell anaemia
harmful, but beneficial in malarial zones
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Diploid
two copies of each gene
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Genotype
complement of alleles found in an organism
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Phenotype
physical effects produced by a genotype
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Dominant
one copy of the allele causes the phenotype
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Recessive
two copies needed for the organism to display the phenotype
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Autosomal recessive disorders
two affected parents will always have affected children, close relatives who reproduce more likely to have affected children
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Autosomal dominant disorders
affected children usually have affected parent, heterozygotes (Aa) affected, two affected parents can have unaffected child
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Polygenic inheritance
height determined by many genes, can be due to environment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

mutation and recombination

Back

Two sources introduce variation

Card 3

Front

F1 all round, F2 round:wrinkled = 3:1

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

digital code, duplication using old strands as templates, variation introduced during DNA replication

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

heritable change in the genetic information of an organism, caused by errors in DNA replication, external factors

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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