The Cell Lecture 12

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 18:49
The cell cycle
cell division is tightly regulated process, the cell grows, the DNA is replicated, cell division
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Yeast cell cycle mutants
wild type, wee mutant, Cdc25 mutant
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G1 growth checkpoint
wee mutant fails here
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Tumours
uncontrolled cell division, upstream signal, control whether a cell enters the cell cycle or remains in G0, if a cell becomes defective in the signalling machinery it may enter the cell cycle permanently, causing identical defective daughter cells
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Explosive cell death
cell membrane digested
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Apoptosis
cell decides to die, cells shrink, chromatin degraded, cells break into small, membrane-wrapped fragments, engulfed by phagocytic cells, inflammation is not induced
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Cell death
developmental process, removes pathogenic cells
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Programmed cell death
regulates cell number by balancing cell division developmental processes, removal of pathogenic cells
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Virus infected cell
induced to die by cytotoxic T lymphocytes
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Immune cells
induced to die to prevent immune response against self
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Cells with DNA damage
removal of potentially tumourogenic cells
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Pathway for apoptosis
decision to die, execution of death, engulfment, degradation of dead cell
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Bcl-2
inhibits capases, prevents cell death in all cells
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Differentiation
certain cells specialised to be nerve cells, skin cells etc.
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Totipotent
single cell can give rise to all cell types
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Pluripotent
single cell can give rise to a sub-set of cell types
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Terminal differentiation
cells permanently committed to specialised function
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Newts, flatworms etc.
regenerate lost body parts by differentiation
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Dolly the Sheep
differentiated cell and totipotent egg fused
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X-Inactivation
CC derived from cell inactivated orange gene: all black fur
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Stem cells
pluripotent, give rise at each division to several types of cell, also generate more stem cells controlled by external factors
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Induced pluripotent stem cells
exist in humans, genes turn back on
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

wild type, wee mutant, Cdc25 mutant

Back

Yeast cell cycle mutants

Card 3

Front

wee mutant fails here

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

uncontrolled cell division, upstream signal, control whether a cell enters the cell cycle or remains in G0, if a cell becomes defective in the signalling machinery it may enter the cell cycle permanently, causing identical defective daughter cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

cell membrane digested

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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