The Cell Cycle

HideShow resource information
Cyclic-cdk
This regulates the cell cycle. Cdks can phosphorylate substrates but will only do so if interactin with cyclin. Cyclin is degraded to switch off cdk's. Cyclin concentration and cdk activity is highest during mitosis
1 of 15
Origins of replication
Short sequences of DNA that are recognised as the start point of DNA replication
2 of 15
Pre-replicative complex
A group of proteins in G1 stage (that contains the origin recognition complex) that sits on the origins of replication, ready to start replicating DNA should the cell enter S phase
3 of 15
S-cdk
A version of cdk that becomes active during S phase. It activates DNA helicases and assembly of proteins at the replication fork. It also phosphorylates cdc6
4 of 15
Cdc6-p
Degredation of this protein prevents re-initiation of DNA replication within the same cell cycle
5 of 15
Tumour suppressors
These are anti-growth genes - p53 and Rb protein - that are inactivated in cancer cells. Both copies require inactivation for growth control to be lost
6 of 15
p53
A transcription factor that is stabilised when the cell is damaged. This drives transcription of a number of genes. The outcome is cell death if the damage is irreparable, otherwise a cdk inhibitor can repair it
7 of 15
Rb protein
Decides whether the cell can enter S phase. When mitogens are present, cdk becomes activated and phosphorylates this protein which then releases a TF which can drive transcription related to cell proliferation
8 of 15
Prophase
Stage of mitosis where chromosomes condense and centrosomes move apart
9 of 15
Prometaphase
Stage of mitosis where nuclear membrane breaks down and spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores
10 of 15
Metaphase
Stage of mitosis where chromosomes align at the equator of the spindle. Kinetochores from paired sister chromatids attach to opposite poles of the spindle
11 of 15
Anaphase
Stage of mitosis where sister chromatids synchronously separate. Kinetochore microtubules shorten. Spindle poles move apart
12 of 15
Telophase
Stage of mitosis where chromosomes arrive at the poles. Nuclear envelope reassembles, giving two new identical daughter nuclei
13 of 15
Apoptosis
Cell death. Mitochondria releases cytochrome C; phosphatidyl serine becomes externalised so macrophages can detect it as a dying cell; membrane blebbing; DNA fragmentation; nucleus fragments, chromatin condenses; phagocytosis of remains by macrophage
14 of 15
Oncogene
A proto-oncogene is a normal gene (involved in promoting entry into the cell cycle) that can become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression. The product of an oncogene is a tumour inducing agent
15 of 15

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Short sequences of DNA that are recognised as the start point of DNA replication

Back

Origins of replication

Card 3

Front

A group of proteins in G1 stage (that contains the origin recognition complex) that sits on the origins of replication, ready to start replicating DNA should the cell enter S phase

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A version of cdk that becomes active during S phase. It activates DNA helicases and assembly of proteins at the replication fork. It also phosphorylates cdc6

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Degredation of this protein prevents re-initiation of DNA replication within the same cell cycle

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Pharmacy resources:

See all Pharmacy resources »See all Control of Cell Numbers resources »