The Cell Cycle

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What 4 events need controlling?
Duplicating cytoplasm, duplicating chromosomes, segregating chromosomes, segregating cytoplasm
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What is the slowest phase of the cell cycle?
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`What happens in each stage of the cell cycle? (a) G1 (b) S (c) G2 (d) M
a) organelle duplication and cytoplasmic growth b) replication/synthesis c)rapid cell growth and protein synthesis d)mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokenesis (cytoplasmic division)
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Define (a) quiescence (b) senescence
(a) resting state reversible by GFs and hormones b) hay flick limit reached
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What 4 ways can cdk's be regulated?
1)regulation of transcription of cyclins 2) protein phosphorylation (can be activating/inactivating) 3)binding inhibitory proteins 4) targeted proteolysis (cyclins targeted for degradation by proteasome).
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What is the (a) vertebrate equivalent (b) budding yeast equivalent of 1) g1-cdk 2)g1/2-cdk 3)s-cdk 4) m-cdk
1(a) D-cdk4/6 (b) Cln3-cdk1 2(a) E-cdk2 (b) Cln1,2-cdk1 3(a) A-cdk2/1 (b) cln5,6-cdk1 4(a) B-cdk1 (b) Cln1,2,3,4-cdk1
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What is cdk1 also known as in (a) vertebrates and fission yeast (b) budding yeast?
(a) cdc2 (b) cdc28.
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What does plk stand for?
polo-like kinases
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Where are the following activated? (a) M-cdk (b) Plk (c) Aurora A (d) Aurora B?
(a)-(c) = centromeres. (d) = at DNA (n.b. m-cdk then moves to nucleus at late prophase)
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What three things do these contribute to?
Assembly, stabilisation and attachment of sister chromatids to mitotic spindle
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what drives cytokinesis?
Formation of actin-myosin contractile ring
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When does the formation of this ring occur?
Begins in anaphase-completes in telophase
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What is the contraction driven by?
Myosin II
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What is myosin II?
An ATP-dependent motor protein that continues the motility of actin fibres, hence allowing them to be pulled together
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What occurs in (a) prophase (b) prometaphase (c) metaphase
(a) condensation of chromosomes, assembly of spindles outside nucleus, separation of centrosomes (b) nuclear envelope breakdown (by p'n of nuclear lamin (c)chromosomal alignment at spindle equator and attachment to kinetochores
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(d) anaphase (e) telophase
(d) Sister chromatid segregation, shortening of kinetochores and spindle poles move outwards, beginning of formation of contractile ring (e) chromosomes arrive at poles, nuclear envelope reforms, contractile ring completed
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(f) cytokenesis
(f) division of cytoplasm by contraction of contractile ring (ATP dependent power stroke allows P ends of myosin to move towards each other until brought together to form new membrane)
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Card 2


What is the slowest phase of the cell cycle?



Card 3


`What happens in each stage of the cell cycle? (a) G1 (b) S (c) G2 (d) M


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Card 4


Define (a) quiescence (b) senescence


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Card 5


What 4 ways can cdk's be regulated?


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