The Brain

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Function of the Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex
In control of higher brain functions such as emotions, judgement, reasoning and conscious thought. It is divided into 2 hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum. Cerebral cortex is sub-divided into sensory, association and motor areas.
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What does the sensory area do?
Receives impulses indirectly from the receptors.
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What do the association areas do?
Compare input with previous experiences in order to interpret what the input means and judge an appropriate response.
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What do the motor areas do?
Send impulses to the effectors (muscles and glands).
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Function of the Cerebellum
Involved with coordinated muscle response. Neurones carry impulses to motor areas so motor output to the effectors can be adjusted appropriately to meet the requirements. Plays key role in coordinating balance, fine movement and posture.
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Where does the cerebellum process sensory information from to help with coordination?
1. The retina, 2. Balance organs in the inner ear, 3. Spindle fibres in muscles.
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Function of the hypothalamus
Controls autonomic nervous system+endocrine glands. Controls the body's homeostatic mechanisms. Sensory input from temp receptors+osmoreceptors is received by hypothalamus+leads to initiation of responses that regulate body temp+blood water potential
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Function of medulla oblongata
Controls action of smooth muscle in gut wall+controls breathing movements+heart rate. Controls non-skeletal muscle(cardiac+involuntary). Controls autonomic NS. Cardiac centre+respiratory centre found here.
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Show organisation of the nervous system
Nervous system --> Peripheral NS --> Autonomic NS OR Somatic NS --> Sympathetic NS OR Parasympathetic NS.
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What parts is the Central Nervous System made up of?
The brain and spinal cord.
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What is the Peripheral Nervous System made up of?
Neurones that carry impulses into and out of the CNS.
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Function of Vagus Nerves.
To serve the abdominal organs.
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Cranial nerves are what?
Part of the nervous system.
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Describe Spinal nerves.
31 pairs of spinal nerves. Either somatic and supply mainly skin and voluntary muscles or they are visceral and supply the gut, glands and involuntary muscles.
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Describe the Somatic Nervous System
Motor neurones transmit impulses away from the CNS to the skeletal muscles. Sensory neurones transmit impulses to CNS from sensory receptors such as touch and taste.
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Describe the Autonomic Nervous System
Consists mainly of efferent visceral motor neurones which are bundled into motor fibres. Motor neurones transmit impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, glands and cardiac muscle. Sensory neurones transmit impulses from visceral receptors to the CNS.
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Describe the construction of the motor system in the Autonomic Nervous System
Consists of 2 neurones. A preganglionic neurone which is myelinated and has it's cell body within the CNS. A postganglionic neurone which is non-myelinated and has it's cell body outside of the CNS.
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Card 2

Front

What does the sensory area do?

Back

Receives impulses indirectly from the receptors.

Card 3

Front

What do the association areas do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do the motor areas do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Function of the Cerebellum

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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