Biology Unit 3

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  • Created on: 07-03-16 19:35
What does the circulatory system contain? What are their functions?
The blood. To transport substances around the body. The heart. Pumps blood around the body. The arteries. Transport blood AWAY from the heart. Veins. Return blood TO the heart. Capillaries. Exchange of materials.
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What is a double circulatory system?
One circulation specifically for the lungs and one for the rest of the body.
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What do the two(four in total) chambers in the heart consist of?
Right atrium and right ventricle. Left atrium and left ventricle.
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What prevents the blood flowing back into the atrium?
A valve-one way.
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How does deoxygenated blood pass through the heart?
Firstly,the deoxygenated blood arrives at the left side of the heart entering through the vena cava. The blood then flows into the RIGHT ATRIUM then the RIGHT VENTRICLE. Finally,blood is pumped out of the heart,along the pulmonary artery to the lung
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How does oxygenated blood pass through the heart?
Enters through the pulmonary vein. Blood flows into the LEFT ATRIUM.Blood is pumped into the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood is pumped to the rest of the heart out of the AORTA to the rest of the body.
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What do the the arteries have to withstand high pressure?
The arteries have thick outer walls,thick layers of muscle and elastic fibres.
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What do veins have?
The veins have thin walls and thin elastic muscles+elastic fibres. They also have one way valves to prevent the blood flowing the opposite way.
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What do capillaries have?
Capillaries have thin walls that are one cell thick to allow diffusion of oxygen and food.
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INTO AND OUT OF CELLS
INTO AND OUT OF CELLS
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
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Where in the human body does diffusion occur?
In the exchange of materials in the capillaries.
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water from a high water concentration to a low water concentration through a partially permeable membrane.
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How is osmosis important to plants?
The roots use osmosis to take up water.
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What does osmosis make the plant?
Osmosis makes the plant turgid so it can keep the plant upright.
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What is active transport?
Active transport is the net movement of paticles from a low concentration to a high concentration. This is against the concentration gradient.
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Where does active take place in plants?
Active transport takes place in root cells to absorb IONS from dilute solutions
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Where does active transport take place in the human body?
Active transport take place in the small intestine to absorb glucose from digested food in the gut into the body.
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HOMEOSTASIS
HOMEOSTASIS
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What also must be kept constant for our cells to work efficiently?
Water and mineral ion content.
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How are waste products gotten rid of in the body? Which ones?
Waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea are excreted out of the body.
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How is carbon dioxide produced and how is it removed?
Carbon dioxide is a product of aerobic respiration. It is removed by the lungs when we breathe out.
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How is urea produced and how is it removed?
Urea is produced by the breaking down of amino acids in the liver. It is removed by the kidneys from the blood and urine is stored in the bladder temporarily.
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How does our body take in water?
Our body takes in water from food and drinks. Also,our bodies get water when we repire by burning glucose to release energy.
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How do our bodies loose water?
Our bodies loose water when we sweat,produce faecese,urinate and when we breath out.
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What happens to our breath on a cold day?
We can see the water as it condenses into vapour!
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How is the water balance maintained?
The water balance is controlled by the kidneys. They do this by producing urine of different concentrations.
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What happens when the water level of our blood plasma is high?
More water is reabsorbed back into the blood and the urine becomes more concentrated.
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GASEOUS EXCHANGE
GASEOUS EXCHANGE
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What separates the thorax and the abdomen?
The diaphragm.
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What is the purpose of the ribcage?
The purpose of the ribcage is to protect the lungs and the heart.
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What do the ribs and diaphragm do to increase the volume of the lungs?
The ribs move up and out allowing move air to move in. The diaphragm becomes flatter.
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What causes the ribcage to move upwards and outwards?
Intercostal muscles between the ribs contract.
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What does it mean if there is a higher increased volume in the lungs?
It means there is a lower air pressure in the lungs which means air is drawn into the lungs.
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What type of pressure is the iron lung?
Negative air pressure system.
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How does a positive pressure bag work?
Air is squeezing from the bag into the lungs forces air in and(out of the lungs).
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EXCHANGE SYSTEMS IN PLANTS
EXCHANGE SYSTEMS IN PLANTS
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What do guard cells do?
Open and close to let in gases. Control stomata.
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What do stomata do?
Allow diffusion of carbon dioxide in the leaf required for photosynthesis. Oxygen can diffuse out.
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What do stomata have?
Guard cells.
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How is water absorbed?
Water is absorbed through the roots.
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What else is in the water?
Mineral ions e.g magnesium,nitrates.
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How is surface area of roots increased?
Root hair cells increase the surface are. Their cells are 1 cell thick to allow quicker diffusion.
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What do mesophyll do?
Increase the surface area on the inside of the plant to absorb gases,this is because they are loosely packed.
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What is transpiration?
When water evapourates from leaves.
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What factors increase transpiration?
Hot weather due to increase in energy. Dry weather,low humidity means more evaporation in the leaves. Windy conditions, this is because the particles are being moved away from the surface of the leaf.
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Why do plants wilt?
Plant wilt when they do not have enough water.
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TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN PLANTS
TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN PLANTS
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What are vascular bundles made up of?
Phloem and xylem.
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What is the role of the phloem?
Transports sugars(from photosynthesis).
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What is the role of the xylem?
Transports water and minerals( water needed for photosynthesis).
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What is the transpiration stream?
Roots>xylem>leaves>Evaporates
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TEMPERATURE CONTROL
TEMPERATURE CONTROL
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What detects the temperature of the blood?
The thermoregulatory centre.
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How does sweating cool the body?
Sweating cools the body by producing water. The water is evaporated taking the heat energy away from the skin surface.
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FOOD PRODUCTION
FOOD PRODUCTION
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What is factory farming?
Factory farming is when the movement of the animals is restricted to allow quicker growth and more energy to the consumer. More biomass to humans.
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What is organic free/range farming?
Animals grown in a larger area allowing them to have more movement and more food. Less biomass to humans however.
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What are food miles?
When food is imported from other countries around the world.
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What do food miles do?
Food miles measure the distance food has travelled to get to your plate.
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BIOFUELS
BIOFUELS
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What gas is used in a biogas generator?
Methane.
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What is needed for the production of biogas?
Anaerobic conditions+warmth.
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What is biogas used for?
Biogas can be used for: cooking,heating and electricity production. Waste material from biogas generator produces fertiliser for plants and crops.
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DEFORESTATION
DEFORESTATION
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What are peat bogs?
peat bogs are marshy ground that contains partially decayed plant material which can be burned or used to make soil better.
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What do peat bogs produce?
Carbon dioxide.
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CONTROL OF BLOOD GLUCOSE
CONTROL OF BLOOD GLUCOSE
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How does the body lower blood glucose level?
The body lowers the blood glucose level by secreting insulin from the pancreas.
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What does it mean if you have type 1 diabetes?
It means that your pancreas produces less or no inulin. Also,glucose cannot enter the cells. Glucose cannot be converted into glycogen in the liver for stotage.
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What is glucagon?
Glucagon is a hormone that is released from the pancreas. It converts glycogen into glucose. It happens in the liver.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a double circulatory system?

Back

One circulation specifically for the lungs and one for the rest of the body.

Card 3

Front

What do the two(four in total) chambers in the heart consist of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What prevents the blood flowing back into the atrium?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does deoxygenated blood pass through the heart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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