The Behaviourist approach

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what do behaviourist mean by blank slate?
the term blank slate means we are not born built in mental content but it is learnt through actions and behaviour
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how do behaviourists say how our behaviour is learnt?
interactions with environment, we respond to our environment stimuli
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what do behaviourists mean by nature, nurture?
social and environment factors have the greatest influence on behaviour, but no other factors
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what is it meant by classical conditioning?
learning that occurs through association. a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, making a new stimulus response
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who first described classical conditioning?
ivan pavlov
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how did he use dogs in classical conditioning?
they used the response of salivary being produced with food then used with a bell to create a new response.
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what does it mean by operant conditioning?
learning that occurs when we are reinforced for doing something, which increases the probability that the behaviour in question will be repeated in the future. conversely, if we are punished for behaving in a certain way we are lees likely to do
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what is a skinner box?
a animal can learn to behave in a certain way due to be being rewarded.
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what is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
positive-a reward increases the probability that a behaviour will be repeated negative-escape from an unpleasant situation, increases probability it will happen again e.g doing hwk
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how does counterconditioning work?
step1- patient is taught to relax, step2- creating more scenes more anxiety, step3- promoting more distressing scenes with relaxing scenes, step4- they have mastered the fear
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why did wolpe call counterconditioning reciprocal inhibitor?
because relaxation inhibits the anxiety?
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what are the two forms of systematic desensitisation?
vivo - experience the real fear vitro - to imagine fear
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how old was the albert, in watson and rayner experiment?
nine months
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watson and Rayner experiment was called controlled observation, why?
a form of investigation in which behaviour is observed but under controlled conditions, as opposed to a naturalistic observation
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how was the investigation recorded?
motion picture camera
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to test alberts emotional responses which certain objects was albert confronted?
white rat, rabbit, a dog, monkey, masks, wool
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what other factors except objects did they test on albert?
the loud noise, someone got alberts attention while someone behind him struck a hammer behind him
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at session one how old was albert (not the first time, when he was being tested)
11months, 10days
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what happened with session two with albert?
he was firstly teated if there was a response with just the rat, then he was presented with the rat and the loud noise five times
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what happened with alberts third session?
the testing if albert had a response to the other objects including building blocks that he was playing with
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what happened with alberts fourth session?
he was taken to an new environment with the same stimulus and loud noise
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Card 2

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how do behaviourists say how our behaviour is learnt?

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interactions with environment, we respond to our environment stimuli

Card 3

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what do behaviourists mean by nature, nurture?

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Card 4

Front

what is it meant by classical conditioning?

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Card 5

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who first described classical conditioning?

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