The Approaches

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 19-05-16 10:11
Who is the 'father of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt
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What is introspection?
A form of self-examination in an attempt to study the human mind, by using a stimulus to break up human consciousness into structures of thoughts and feelings
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Why did Watson question the scientific value of introspection?
Involved too many concepts, too vague + it produced data that was subjective; so it was difficult to establish general principles
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What did Watson propose?
That a scientific psychology should only study phenomena that is measurable and observable
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What does the behavioural approach assume?
That all behaviour is learned. We are born as a blank slate and are shaped by our environment.
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What type of behaviour are behaviourists interested in?
Behaviour that is measurable and observable
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association
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What is operant conditioning?
Learning by reinforcement
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What is positive reinforcement?
When a behaviour results in a reward, it is more likely to be repeated
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What is negative reinforcement?
When a behaviour displayed avoids something unpleasant, it is more likely to be repeated
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What is punishment?
When a behaviour results in a negative outcome, it is less likely to be repeated
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Which study supports classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov's dogs
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Which study supports operant conditioning?
B.F Skinner's Rats/Pigeons
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Why si the behavioural approach reductionist?
It reduces complex human behaviour down to an animal level. & ignores other influences such as; emotions, biology and cognitions
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What does the social learning theory assume (Bandura)?
That behaviour is learnt directly, but also indirectly through observation and imitation of others in a social context
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What is modelling?
A 'model'/individual displays a certain behaviour
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What is identification?
The extent to which an observer relates to the model (same age, gender etc.). The observer wants to be like the model
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What is imitation?
When the observer reproduces the behaviour
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What is vicarious reinforcement?
Reinforcement that indirectly occurs through observing someone else being reinforced. Imitation only occurs if the behaviour is seen to be rewarded rather than punished
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What are the 4 mediation/mental processes?
Attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation
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What do Bandura find from his Bobo doll study?
That children would copy the adult by being aggressive towards the doll
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When Bandura and Walters later added conditions, what did they find?
The group that watched the adult being praised for their violent behaviour, showed more aggression towards the doll
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What kind of experiment was Bandura's study?
A lab experiment
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What is the assupmtion of the cognitive approach?
Internal mental processes should be scientifically stiudied
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How do cognitive psychologists study internal mental processes?
Indirectly by making inferences
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What are theoretical models?
Simplified representations based on current research
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Examples of theoretical models?
MSM and WMM
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What does the cognitive approach state about computer models?
It is similar to the mind in the way that information is processed
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Why are computer models useful?
They have helped in the development of artificial intelligence
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What are schema?
Packages of ideas and information we develop through experiences
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What do schema do?
They act as a mental framework for the processing of incoming research
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How are schema helpful?
They enable us to process lots of information quickly, and act as a mental short-cut
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What are the limitations of schema?
They are based on experiences; we may interpret things wrongly based on prejudices and previously processed inforamtion
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What is cognitive neuroscience?
The scientific study of the influence of brain structures on mental process
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What does the biological approach assume?
That all behaviour is down to physical factors in the body. To understand behaviour we must look at biological factors: biological structures, biochemistry and genes
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What is used to determine whether behaviour characteristics are inherited?
Twin studies
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What are concordance rates?
The extent to which both twins share the same characteristics
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How much of their genes do monozygotic twins share?
100%
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How much of their genes do dizygotic twins share?
50%
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Which twins have higher concordance rates?
Monozygotic
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What is a persons genotype?
Their actual genetic makeup
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What is a persons phenotype?
The way that their genes are expressed; through physical, psychological and behavioural characteristics
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What influences the expression of a persons genes?
Environmental factors
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Who proposed the idea of natural selection- a theory of evolution?
Charles Darwin
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What is natural selection (briefly)?
Any genetically determined behaviour that is advantageous to an organism, enhances its chances of survival and would be passed on to its offspring
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Why is the biological approach reductionist?
It only focuses on the genetic and behaviour basis of behvaiour and doesn't regard other important factors that have a significant influence on behaviour
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What is introspection?

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A form of self-examination in an attempt to study the human mind, by using a stimulus to break up human consciousness into structures of thoughts and feelings

Card 3

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Why did Watson question the scientific value of introspection?

Back

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Card 4

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What did Watson propose?

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Card 5

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What does the behavioural approach assume?

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