The Approaches

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 19-05-16 10:11
Who is the 'father of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt
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When and where did he open the first lab dedicated to psychology?
In Germany, 1879
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What did he come up?
Introspection
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What is introspection?
A form of self-examination + the first experimental attempt to study the human mind, by using a stimulus to break up human consciousness into structures of thoughts and feelings
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Strengths of Wundt's work?
Used highly controlled methods; the same stimulus + standardised procedure that can be replicated to test for reliability and validity & he separated modern scientific pscyhology from its philosophical roots
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Weaknesses of Wundt's work?
Involved too many vague concepts and produced subjective data- so it was difficult to establish general principles
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Why did Watson question the scientific value/status of introspection?
Involved too many concepts, too vague + it produced data that was subjective; so it was difficult to establish general principles
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What did Watson propose?
A scientific pscyhology should only studied phenomena that is observable and measurable
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What influence was brought upon psycholgoy?
The influences of natural sciences; through lab experiment by Watson and Skinner
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What does the behavioural approach assume?
That all behaviour is learned. We are born as a blank slate and are shaped by our environment.
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What type of behaviour are behaviourists interested in?
Behaviour that is measurable and observable
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association
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What is operant conditioning?
Learning by reinforcement
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What is positive reinforcement?
When a behaviour results in a reward, it is more likely to be repeated
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What is negative reinforcement?
When a behaviour displayed avoids something unpleasant, it is more likely to be repeated
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What is punishment?
When a behaviour results in a negative outcome, it is less likely to be repeated
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Which study supports classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov's dogs
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Which study supports operant conditioning?
B.F Skinner's Rats/Pigeons
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Why is the behavioural approach reductionist?
It reduces complex human behaviour down to an animal level. & ignores other influences such as; emotions, biology and cognitions
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Why is it difficult to apply the behavioural approach to humans?
Because the learning principles have been tested mainly on animals, so it's difficult to generalise the findings to more complex humand
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Why is the approach influential on the development of psychology as a science?
Behaviourists only study behaviour that is observable and measurable; using highly controlled conditions (e.g. lab experiments) So the methods are very objective.
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What real-life application has classical conditioning resulted in?
Therapies such as systematic desensitisation; eliminating the learned anxious response associated with a feared object. It has been successful, so the explanation is valid
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What real-life application is there of positive reinforcment?
Token economy systems; used in institutions like prisons and schools where good behaviour is rewarded with tokens which can be exchanged for privledges/items
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Why is the approach deterministic?
It states that all behaviour is determined on past experiences; and ignores the notion of free will which may affect our behaviour. Also claims that we have no choice over our actions
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What does the social learning theory assume (Bandura)?
That behaviour is learnt directly (through classical + operant conditioning), but also indirectly through observation and imitation of others in a social context
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What is modelling?
A 'model'/individual displays a certain behaviour
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What is identification?
The extent to which an observer relates to the model (same age, gender etc.). The observer wants to be like the model
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What is imitation?
Once the behaviour has been observed by the learner it is reproduced/imitated
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What is vicarious reinforcement?
Reinforcement only occurs if the model is seen to be rewarded (reinforced) and not punished. So imitaion is determined by the consequence of the behaviour modelled.
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What are the 4 mediation/mental processes?
Attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation
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What did Bandura find from his Bobo doll study?
That children would copy the adult by behaving aggressively and violently towards the doll- even more so than the adult they observed
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When Bandura and Walters later added conditions, what did they find?
The group that watched the adult being praised for their violent behaviour, showed more aggression towards the doll
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What kind of experiment was Bandura's study?
A lab experiment
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What is the assupmtion of the cognitive approach?
Internal mental processes should be scientifically stiudied
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How do cognitive psychologists study internal mental processes?
Indirectly by making inferences
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What are theoretical models?
Simplified representations based on current research
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Examples of theoretical models?
MSM and WMM
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What does the cognitive approach state about computer models?
It is similar to the mind in the way that information is processed
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Why are computer models useful?
They have helped in the development of artificial intelligence
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What are schema?
Packages of ideas and information we develop through experiences
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What do schema do?
They act as a mental framework for the processing of incoming research
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How are schema helpful?
They enable us to process lots of information quickly, and act as a mental short-cut
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What are the limitations of schema?
They are based on experiences; we may interpret things wrongly based on prejudices and previously processed inforamtion
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What is cognitive neuroscience?
The scientific study of the influence of brain structures on mental process
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What does the biological approach assume?
That all behaviour is down to physical factors in the body. To understand behaviour we must look at biological factors: biological structures, biochemistry and genes
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What is used to determine whether behaviour characteristics are inherited?
Twin studies
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What are concordance rates?
The extent to which both twins share the same characteristics
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How much of their genes do monozygotic twins share?
100%
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How much of their genes do dizygotic twins share?
50%
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Which twins have higher concordance rates?
Monozygotic
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What is a persons genotype?
Their actual genetic makeup
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What is a persons phenotype?
The way that their genes are expressed; through physical, psychological and behavioural characteristics
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What influences the expression of a persons genes?
Environmental factors
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Who proposed the idea of natural selection- a theory of evolution?
Charles Darwin
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What is natural selection (briefly)?
Any genetically determined behaviour that is advantageous to an organism, enhances its chances of survival and would be passed on to its offspring
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Why is the biological approach reductionist?
It only focuses on the genetic and behaviour basis of behvaiour and doesn't regard other important factors that have a significant influence on behaviour
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When and where did he open the first lab dedicated to psychology?

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In Germany, 1879

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What did he come up?

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Card 4

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What is introspection?

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Strengths of Wundt's work?

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