The Affluent Society - 1951-1964

How long were the Conservative governments in power from 1951?
13 years.
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Who was leader from 1951-55?
Winston Churchill
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Who was leader from 1955-57?
Anthony Eden
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Who was leader from 1957-63?
Harold Macmillan
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Who was leader from 1963-64?
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
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What was introduced under Attlee that the governments until 1970, followed?
The post-war consensus.
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What was a part of the post-war consensus?
Maintenance of the welfare state (NHS, unemployment benefits etc.), Keynesian economics, the mixed economy (some private, some national industry), full employment, housing, education, defence commitments - decolonisation.
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What did Churchill privatise in 1952?
Iron, steel and road haulage.
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Which war did Britain participate in from 1950-53?
The Korean War (Britain seemed a world power).
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Was welfare spending increased under Churchill?
Yes, and prescription charges were revised upwards also.
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What year was the NHS declared the most cost effective and efficient it had ever been?
1956
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How many houses did Churchill promise to build each year?
300,000
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In what year did the Conservatives exceed this target?
1953 with 318,750 homes.
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Was the 11+ scheme continued under Churchill?
Yes and spending on education was revised upwards after the Korean War.
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Did Churchill continue maintaining the mixed economy, Keynesianism and full employment?
Yes
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What did 'Butskellism' mean?
The overlap between Conservative and Labour policies, e.g maintenance of full employment/economic growth, continued development of welfare state, maintenance of defence commitments/nuclear weaponry.
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What was the balance of payments by 1961?
£95 million.
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What was 'stagflation'?
Price rises despite a downturn in the economy.
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What was the budget deficit in 1957?
£540 million.
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What was the budget deficit in 1964?
£800 million.
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When did Macmillan make his famous ''you've never had it so good'' speech?
1957.
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What was stop-go growth (favoured by Macmillan)?
Using interest rates to manage the economy. When the economy appeared to be growing too quickly, interest rates were raised - reducing demand. When economy slowed, interest rates were reduced, making credit cheaper and creating an increase on demand.
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What did the Conservatives do around elections?
Often manipulated the economy/cut taxes.
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When did Churchill retire due to poor health?
1955
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Who was Churchill replaced with?
Anthony Eden.
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What had been Eden's position in Churchill's cabinet?
Foreign Secretary.
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When Eden hosted an election, what percentage of the vote did he win?
49.7%.
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Which disaster occurred in Oct 1956?
The Suez Crisis.
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Why did the Suez Crisis occur?
Col. Nasser of Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal, preventing British and French industries accessing their share.
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What were the Americans caught up in 1956?
The Hungarian Uprising
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Did the Americans support the British in the Suez Crisis?
No - they believed that if they intervened then they would lose their super power status. They viewed the conflict as unnecessary and imperialist.
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Which power became involved because it wanted weaponry and a potential ally?
Israel.
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What had Churchill paused?
Decolonisation.
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What did Eisenhower threaten to do?
Sell off British Government Bonds (which would lead to a crash in the £)
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What did Saudi Arabia do to Britain?
Imposed oil sanctions, which led to a petrol crisis.
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Why did Eden have to withdraw?
America would not send any additional supplies.
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When was the Bretton Woods Agreement?
1944
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How much did the Bretton Woods Agreement fix the £ at?
$2.80
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What were the consequences of Suez?
Petrol shortages (6 months of petrol rationing), budget deficit of £564 million, the prices of foreign goods went up.
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When did Eden resign?
Jan 1957
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Who filled his position?
Harold Macmillan.
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Memories of what shaped Macmillan's thinking?
The Great Depression.
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What did Macmillan stress an importance towards after Suez?
Rebuilding of the special relationship.
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What was his government characterised by?
Nepotism.
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How many Etonians were in his cabinet?
35.
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What was Macmillan known for?
His calm demeanour, sense of humour and pragmatism, which made him strong in terms of his economy policy.
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When did rationing end?
1954
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What did Macmillan support in terms of economic policy?
The PWC and stop-go growth.
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What did Macmillan want to cut?
Defence spending.
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Who resigned in 1957 because of stop-go economic policies?
Chancellor - Peter Thorneycroft.
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What was detonated in 1957?
The first H-bomb, despite being a fake.
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What did Eisenhower agree to cooperate in after seeing Britain's military confidence?
Nuclear research.
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How many Thor missiles were kept on British soil?
60
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When was the Mutual Defence Agreement issued?
1958
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What did Macmillan support the USA in, in 1962?
The Cuban Missile Crisis.
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When was the Mau Mau rebellion?
1952-56
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When was did the Malayan emergency begin?
1948
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When did Macmillan make his ''Winds of Change'' speech?
1960
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What did he speak of in his speech?
Decolonisation and ''national consciousness''.
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Where did he make his speech?
South Africa.
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Which African Colony was first to be granted independence in 1957?
Ghana.
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When was the EEC formed?
1957
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What was the Treaty called that formed it?
Treaty of Rome.
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When did Britain first attempt to join the EEC?
1961
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When did Britain make its second attempt to join the EEC?
1963
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What did Macmillan reportedly do when he found out that British application had been vetoed?
Cried.
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What economic benefits did Macmillan believe the EEC would bring?
Improved trade and economic growth for ''The Six''.
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What was sustained during the '50's and early '60's?
Living standards.
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What were changes driven by?
Technological advances and higher wages.
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What became more significant due to Commonwealth participation?
Immigration.
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Which inventions became popular in the 50's and reduced the domestic workload?
Formica and washing machines.
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Which invention saw the introduction of supermarkets?
Refrigerators.
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What was consumerism fuelled by?
Credit - people were borrowing more money from the government.
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What became more influential in the 1950s which aided consumerism?
Advertising.
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When were television adverts introduced?
1950
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When was ITV introduced?
1950
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Which popular soap was introduced in 1960?
Coronation Street.
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What did adverts typically reflect?
1950's attitudes.
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By how much did car ownership grow by in the 1950s?
3 million - 7 million.
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What did TV revolutionise?
Social lives, since less people visited the cinema or theatre.
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What was the position like for women in the 50s?
Women were tied to their positions as housewives and had limited career opportunities.
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What percentage of mens' pay did women receive?
Just 40%.
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Approximately how many divorces were there each year during the 1950s?
25,000.
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When was the ''baby boom"?
1947.
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How many children did the average family have?
2.4
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What percentage of the population did manual labour?
60%.
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Was there still a class division in the 1950's?
Yes.
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What did the Tories seem to represent?
The nature of the establishment.
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What type of housing still existed in the 1950's?
Slum housing.
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When was the Rent Act passed?
1957.
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What did the Rent Act mean for ordinary people?
There were no regulations on rent and thus rent prices went up.
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Who was a famous and notorious landlord?
Peter Rachmman.
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Who did Peter Rachmann have an affair with that John Profumo also have an affair with?
Christine Keeler.
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How many houses became available to rent as a result of the Rent Act?
6 million.
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How did the Rent Act improve pub culture?
Men had less disposable income to spend on trips to the pub.
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Which new social groups emerged during the '50's?
Mods, Rockers and Teddy Boys.
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What caused Labour splits in the 1950's?
Splits between Bevan (left) and Gaitskell (right). Issues regarding CND, social welfare (prescription charges).
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Why did their 1959 election campaign fail?
Too hurriedly put together. People worried that Labour would raise taxes. Their pensions scheme was too hurriedly put together and would not work.
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What didn't the people believe Labour would maintain?
Economic prosperity.
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When did Hugh Gaitskell die?
1963.
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When was the Profumo Affair?
1963.
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Why did Macmillan sack most of his cabinet ministers in 1962?
To make way for younger members in the Party who were more representative of society.
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What was this nicknamed?
The ''Night of the Long Knives"
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Why did the Conservatives lose in the 1964 election?
Their leadership was unrepresentative of a new Britain - almost all ministers were exclusively born to wealth and privilege.
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When were the Notting Hill Riots?
1958
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When was the Bristol Bus Boycott?
1963
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Who didn't have time to establish himself as leader?
Douglas-Home.
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Card 2

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Who was leader from 1951-55?

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Winston Churchill

Card 3

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Who was leader from 1955-57?

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Card 4

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Who was leader from 1957-63?

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Card 5

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Who was leader from 1963-64?

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