The abdomen and gastrointestinal tract

  • Created by: feyikemi5
  • Created on: 28-11-17 20:51
What is the gastrointestinal tract?
A continuous tube that runs from the oral cavity to the anus through the body cavity
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What are the different parts of the gastrointestinal system?
The pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, and small &large intestines as well as accessory digestive organs such as the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. The spleen is not part of the system but is included.
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What are the two forms of digestion?
Mechanical and chemical digestion
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What are the three types of papillae found on the surface of the tongue?
Fungiform, filiform and circumvallate papillae
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What are the palates on the roof of the mouth called?
Hard and soft palate
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What does the epiglottis do?
Flap that seals off the windpipe when eating so food isn’t inhaled
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What are the three types of salivary glands?
Submandibular gland, parotid gland, and sublingual gland
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What is the inflammation of the parotid gland called?
Mumps
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What is the ramus?
Ascending part of the mandible
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What is the relationship between the parotid duct and the buccinator?
The parotid duct passes through the the buccinator
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What does the buccinator muscle do?
Used when chewing
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What are the three parts of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx
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What structure closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing?
Soft palate
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What is the function of the Eustachian tube?
To drain fluid from the ear into the throat
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What marks the division betwen the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx?
Epiglottis
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What muscle keeps the oesophagus closed and relaxes to allow food to pass when swallowing?
The cricopharyngeal muscle
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What cranial nerve supplies the oesophagus?
Vagus nerve
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Where does the oesophagus pass through the diaphragm?
Oesophageal hiatus
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At what vertebral level does the oesophagus pass through the diaphragm?
T10
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What planes are used to divide the abdomen into 9 regions?
Median plane, transumbilical plane, midclavicular line, transpyloric plane, and transtubercular plane
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What are the 9 regions of abdomen?
Right and left hypochondriac, epigastrium, right and left lumbar, umbilical region, right and left inguinal and hypogastrium
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What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
Left, right, quadrate, and caudate lobes
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Why are the subphrenic spaces and the hepatorenal pouch?
Fluid accumulates here as it is the lowest dependent spaces of the peritoneal cavity
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What are the 3 parts of the stomach?
Fundus, body, and pyloric antrum
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What are the sides of the stomach called?
Greater and lesser curvature
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What are the ridge inside the stomach called?
Rugae
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What sphincter is between the pylorus and the duodoeum?
Pyloric sphincter
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Can the spleen be palpated under normal consition?
No
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What is the blood supply to the spleen?
Splenic artery from celiac trunk
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What does retroperitoneal organs mean?
Organs that are only covered anteriorly by the peritoneum
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What are the retroperitoneal organs? (REMEMBER SAD PUCKER)
S = Suprarenal (adrenal) glands A = Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava D = Duodenum (second and third segments) P = Pancreas U = Ureters C = Colon (ascending and descending only) K = Kidneys E = Esophagus R = Rectum
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the different parts of the gastrointestinal system?

Back

The pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, and small &large intestines as well as accessory digestive organs such as the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. The spleen is not part of the system but is included.

Card 3

Front

What are the two forms of digestion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the three types of papillae found on the surface of the tongue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the palates on the roof of the mouth called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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