Textiles key Terms

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  • Created by: 08baxterr
  • Created on: 01-05-14 16:28
Aesthetics
The study of the concept of beauty and the look style and appearance of an item
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Annotation
Notes providing a critical explanation of a piece of work
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Aramid Fibres
Man - made synthetic polymer fibre - ie Nomex and Kevlar - generally high performance fibres with high tenacity and high temperature resistance
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Batch Production
A production line system producing a finite number of items
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Biodegradable
Will break down/decompose when subjected to bacteria
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Branding
A name given to a commodity to increase it's popularity and market share
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Blends
A combination of two or more fibres (usually staple) in one yarn
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BSI
British standards institute- a body that sets and checks safety and quality of consumable items
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CAD/CAM
Computer aided design / computer aided manufacture
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CIM
Computer integrated manufacture - all parts of the business are networked
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CNC
computer numerically controlled - allowing control of all arms of the business by assigning numbers to each job so tracing and management can be controlled
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Colourways
A range of colours one product is available in
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Constraints
The restrictions placed upon the designer / manufacturer
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Carbon Fibre
A mineral fibre normally from graphite used for its lightness and strength
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Cellulose
A plant based fibre - could be natural or regenerated
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Chenille
A fancy yarn with a 'caterpillar -like appearance produced by cutting into a narrow woven band
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Coating
A method of extruding a polymeric (synthetic) layer onto a fabric to produce a coated fabric of two of more layers - eg a pvc and cotton table covering
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Composite Yarn
A yarn composed of two or more distinct fibres - ie. not in the same generic group
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Conductive Fibres
Those that can conduct heat/ light/ electricity - ie; carbon, metallic or glass
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Continuous Filament Yarn
A yarn of infinite length -not cut into staple lengths
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Consumer
The person who purchases the goods - and /or the user
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Corporate Identity
The company's image
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Critical Control Points
Points at which an item must be checked during manufacture
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Criteria
Elements that must be present to fulfil the task
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Data
Information/ observations/ facts or measurements required for a project
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Devoré
A fabric in which two or more different fibres/yarns are used to create a pattern. a substance (usually chemical) is applied as a finish which will burn out one fibre to leave a pattern
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Degradation
The wearing down of the surface of a fabric usually due to abrasion
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Drape
The way a fabric falls or hangs
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Development
The movement of an idea through a number of stages
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EDP
Electronic Data processing - the use of automated methods to process commercial data
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EDI
Electronic data interchange - computer-to-computer exchange of business documents in a standard electronic format between business partners
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Economy of Scale
Balance of return of profit from cost
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Ergonomics
The relationship between the human body and a designed object
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Extrusion
The process of the liquid polymer being passed through the holes of the spinneret
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Fast
Will not fade/run/bleed when exposed to light/ water/washing
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Fashion Cycles
The rise and fall from conception through saturation to 'obsoletion' of a product
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Filament
One fibre of continuous length
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Finish
Either a chemical or mechanical method of altering the surface or properties of a fabric after construction
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Fixed Costs
Costs that do not change but must be accounted for in production (ie heating, lighting, electricity)
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Formula Elements
A set of methods, rules or patterns that have been proven to work if followed correctly
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Flow Chart
A method of planning using agreed symbols to ensure the critical path of the product is followed
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Function
The end use of an item (to make this successful functional requirements of the specification must be met)
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Geotextiles
A generic name for any technical textile used in building and civil engineering ie; landscaping or road re-enforcement
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Generic
A non-brand name ie elastane (generic) Lycra(brand name)
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Handle
The aesthetical properties of a fabric ie; -soft, rough, firm, rigid, flexible, cool, warm
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Heat Set
A process usually applied to a synthetic fabric to utilise its thermosetting properties (pleats)
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Hydrophilic
Mixes well with water or can be wetted easily (applies to most natural fabrics)
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Hydrophobic
Repels water - not easily wetted (most synthetic fabrics)
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Indigo
Blue dye originally made from plants now synthetically reproduced
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Industrial Practices
Processed based activity making cost effective products - encompasses all techniques employed within business processes
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ICT
Information and communication technology - has revolutionised all areas of the textile industry from inspiration through design, make, distribution, sales and feedback
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Laminated Fabric
A woven or knitted fabric coated with an extruded polymer ie PVC
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Logo
A symbol or visual image linked to a brand name or product - enables marketing and promotes customer loyalty
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Man Made Cellulose Fibre
An extruded fibre created from a naturally occurring fibre source (generally cellulose)
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Marketing
The development of a scheme to target a product at the consumer
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Membrane
A fine layer of fabric that will have a specific function in a product (ie. fine cotton lining within a waterproof jacket)
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Micro encapsulation
A chemical process used to trap chemicals in the cells of a fibre (ie. smell, moisture)
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Micro fibre
A synthetically produced fibre that can be 100 times finer than human hair
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Micro porous
A fibre with a cellular structure that increases it's absorbency
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Moisture Management
A system that allows fibres and fabrics to wick moisture away from the skin
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Mood Board
Will set a general feel, colour, mood, and theme rather than give specific inspiration
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Overheads
The costs involved in running a business that will have to be covered in the selling price
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Olefin Fibres
Generic name used for fibres derived from polythene. High performance synthetic fibres, that are resistant to chemicals and weather and are hard wearing such as ethylene
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Pigment
The essence of a dye used in colouration that is insoluble in water.
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PPC
Production, planning and control (production department has control over every stage of make)
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Pattern Block
A standard shape and sized pattern used as a base to create new styles
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Polymer
A large molecule built up from repeated chemical units, the chemical base of synthetic fibres
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Product Life Cycles
The life of a designed outcome traced from conception through maturity into decline and obsolescence
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Primary Reasearch
Research that is gathered, viewed, touched or tested by the individual first hand
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Production Planning
A method of planning the construction of an item through a factory.
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Profit
The money made from the sales of an item after all costs have been deducted
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Prototype
A product made to test a new design so that development and refinement can take place
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Quality Assurance
The method of assuring quality of a product from design through to manufacture.
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Quality Control
Looks at where faults may arise and sets up controls systems to stop them happening.
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QRM
Quick response manufacturing, relies on integrating all parts of the business to respond to needs of the market quickly. EDI, CIM and CAD/CAM play a large part in this
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Research
Gathering information to support and develop ideas, gathering, deconstruction, analysis and synthesis
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Resources
Products and information used to build and gather research information
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Risk Assessment
An analysis of the dangers involved in the production and use of a product.
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Risk Control
Measures set in place to minimise the risks identified in risk assessment
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Secondary Research
Research that is not viewed first hand, but through books pictures and the Internet etc.
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Size
A substance put onto the warp yarns to strengthen and lubricate them in preparation for weaving.
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Staple
A textile fibre of finite length (up to 90cms in length), or yarn constructed from staple fibres.
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Solution
A mixture of two or more substances in a liquid (dissolved state)
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Specification
Set of parameters to adhere to within a brief (design spec., product spec., manufacturing spec.)
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Story Board
Contains themes, designs, fabrics, samples and possibly components for a range of products
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Tensile Strength
Applies to fibres, yarns and fabrics and is a measurement of the load or force that can be put on the fibre, yarn or fabric before it breaks. A spring balance that can be read at the point of breaking normally measures this
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Thermoplastic
A fibre, yarn or fabric capable of being set in a shape by heat and retaining that shape unless the setting temperature is exceeded. Normally requires fabrics with +50% synthetics
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Testing
A range of tests carried out at any stage of the fibre, yarn, and fabric or garments production to ensure the requirements of the end product are met effectively and to compile a care label for the consumer
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Trend Forecasting
A group of people or a company employed to create mood/inspiration, colour, shape, theme, texture, fire, yarn, fabric types for forthcoming seasons. Designers buy into these forecasts to create their ranges
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Tolerance
The degree to which the measurement of the garment can vary from the specification.
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Touch
The handle or feel of a cloth, created by fibre, yarn and fabric construction
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Unit Cost
The cost price of one unit (could be one item or a group or items)
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Vacuum Forming
A method of heat setting and shaping involving the removal of air to pull the fabric tightly over a former. Requires fabrics that are non permeable
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Virgin fibre
refers to any fibre that has not previously been used (no recycled parts)
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Viscose
A regenerated fibre created from the natural polymers in cellulose (normally sourced from wood pulp)
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Warp
The structural yarn running the full length of the loom from top to bottom of the fabric. it is the strongest yarn and forms the selvedge of the fabric
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Weft
The yarns in a woven fabric that run widthways from selvedge to selvedge that are interlaced between the 'shed' of the warp yarns
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Wickability
The ability of a fibre yarn or fabric to take moisture away from the skin (or other surface)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Annotation

Back

Notes providing a critical explanation of a piece of work

Card 3

Front

Aramid Fibres

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Batch Production

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Biodegradable

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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