Tests and Organic

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  • Created by: Callum
  • Created on: 07-05-14 21:57
How would you carry out a flame test?
Dip a piece of nichrome wire in hydrochloric acid and then heat it. Dip the wire in the solution and then put it in the bunsen flame.
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Which colour would Lithium be?
Crimson
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Which colour would Sodium be?
Yellow
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Which colour would Potassium be?
Lilac
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Which colour would Calcium be?
Brick red
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Which colour would Barium be?
Green
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What would you do to test an unknown solution with positive ions in it?
You'd add sodium hydroxide to form a precipitate
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Which coloured precipitate would Iron (3) be?
Brown
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Which coloured precipitate would Iron (2) be?
Green
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Which coloured precipitate would Copper be?
Blue
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Which 3 positive ions form white precipitates?
Aluminium, Magnesium, Calcium
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If you add an excess of sodium hydroxide which ions are present?
Aluminium
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If the precipitate does not dissolve, then either magnesium or calcium ions are present. How do you distinguish between the two?
Do a flame test. If its red than calcium ions are present. If there is no colour than magnesium ions are present.
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How would you test for a carbonate?
Add dilute acid
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What will happen to it if it is a carbonate?
It will fizz (the fizz is the release of carbon dioxide)
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How do you test for carbon dioxide?
Add the carbon dioxide produced by the carbonate to limewater. If present than the limewater will turn cloudy
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How do you test for Halides?
Add dilute nitric acid. Then add silver nitrate solution and a precipitate is formed.
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Why is nitric acid used?
It won't produce a precipitate with silver nitrate solution. The other acids will.
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What colour is the precipitate for silver chloride?
White
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What colour is the precipitate for silver bromide?
Cream
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What colour is the precipitate for silver iodide?
Yellow
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How do you test for sulfates?
Add dilute hydrochloric acid. Add barium chloride solution. A white precipitate is formed.
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What do all organic compounds contain?
Carbon
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What are alchols used for?
Alcholic drinks, solvents (aftershave, perfume), Fuels (biofuel)
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What is the functional group for alchols?
-OH
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Name the 3 ethanols.
Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol
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What is the general formula for alchols?
CnH2n+1OH
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Alchols dissolve in water...
..to form a neutral solution
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What do alcohols produce when reacted with sodium?
Hydrogen
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Alchols burn in air which releases...
..carbon dioxide + water
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How can you turn ethanol into ethanoic acid?
Oxidise it
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What oxidises the ethanol?
Oxidising agents or microbes
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Why does wine taste funny after being left open?
The ethanol becomes oxidised into ethanoic acid
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What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?
-COOH (the first CO is a double bond)
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Methanoic acid =
HCOOH
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Ethanoic acid =
CH3COOH
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Propanoic acid =
CH3CH2COOH
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Carboxylic acids dissolve in water to produce...
..acidic solutions
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What do they produce when reacted with a carbonate?
Carbon dioxide
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Why are carboxylic acids known as weak acids?
They don't ionisise (disocciate) fully due to the reactions being reversible
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How are Esters created?
When alcohols react with carboxylic acids in the presence of an acd catalysti
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What is the functional group for Esters?
-COO
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What is the general formula for an Ester?
CnHn+1OOH
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Esters are used in perfumes, fragrances and as food flavourings. Why is this?
They have distinctive smells and tastes (fruity)
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They are volatile. What does this mean?
They easily evaporate
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ethanoic acid + ethanol =
ethyl ethanoate + water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which colour would Lithium be?

Back

Crimson

Card 3

Front

Which colour would Sodium be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which colour would Potassium be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which colour would Calcium be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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