Teleological

  • Created by: Daisy
  • Created on: 10-04-17 14:11
What are the strengths of the teleological argument?
-uses empirical methods= starts with evidence that we see e.g. human eye -supported by science= intelligent design theory -alternatives are only theories= can't be proven e.g. theory of evolution -supports beliefs of god tennants anthropic principle
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What are the weaknesses of the teleological argument?
-universe is unique=can't comment on the cause of a unique universe -weak analogy -imperfect world, why is the world imperfect=flawed god -evolution -a posterori= probable conclusion
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What was F.R Tennant's supporting argument for the teleological argument?
Anthropic Principle- world is created to give the right conditions for living= surely planned? the provision of the positioning of the earth to the sun, if any closer or further away= wouldn't exist. World is too precise to happen by chance
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What is the weak anthropic?
argues that is the world were any different we wouldn't be here
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What is the strong anthropic?
argues that the world had to be in its order for us to be here= must have been some factor that made human life inevitable= design
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What are the criticisms for Tennant's anthropic principle?
-unlikely the galaxy exists for our earth(COUNTER- why were they?)-could've happened by chance=combination of elements function in a complicated way -probably argument= makes a cause dependant upon the effect-the universe is the cause of the earth
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What is Swinburne's supporting arguments for the teleological argument?
Simplicity- states there are many of the same element that can be combined in many ways (all following the same simple physical laws=simplest explanation is god planned it)
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Who does Swinburne refer to, to support the teleological argument?
Ockham's Razor 'all things being equal the simplest explanation tends to be the best one'
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What was Swinburne's analogy for supporting the teleological argument?
a victim is kidnapped and the only way he can survive is if a card shuffler, hands out the same card from 10 different decks, if a different card is drawn he will get blown u if not he is set free. The card shuffler hands out all of the A of hearts
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What was the reasoning behind Swinburne's card analogy?
the victim will ultimately come to the conclusion that the machine was rigged= as the probability is slim. The same applies to the world= its rigged o have that laws of nature and elements of design= created by designer- God.
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What are the criticisms for Swinburne's analogy?
-is god really the simplest explanation? as we cannot state he's an explanation as his mind/ ways of God= unknown -could've happened by chance
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What is the teleological argument?
design argument-design qua purpose=all objects in the world have a purpose to fulfil/end to meet,things are designed for purpose=too complex to happen by chance -design qua reguarity= everything fits in perfect harmony too complex to happen by chance
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What was Paley's teleological argument?
evidence of designer in the world around us e.g. wings of a bird. Qua regularity- evidence from astronomy and newtons law. Qua regularity-everything too intrinsic- must be a designer
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What was Paley's watch analogy for the teleological argument ?
came across a watch= be puzzled by its presence more so than say a rock as a rock shows no sign of design. therefore if we must argue watch to watch maker we must say world to worldmaker.watch and world both have complexity and purposeful arrangement
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What are the criticisms for Paley's watch analogy?
-analogy is weak=cant compare a watch to the world -some things could've happened by chance e.g. big bang, evolution, chaos theory -cannot know the cause of the universe=cannot conclude god is the cause -doesnt prove thesis idea of god
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What are Darwin's arguments against Paley's teleology?
Natural selection-species develop randomly in order to survive= lucky chance and endless strife and threat-not design. Argued design was the result of a long process of natural selection 'the only watchmaker in nature is the blind force of physics'.
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What are the arguments against Darwin's criticisms?
-evolution=theory not proven fact -obvious complexity of design=worl is too complex -intelligent designer -the anthropic principle -irrediciple complexity-systems where those which have evolved by natural selection
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What are Hume's criticisms for the teleological argument?
-world isnt the same as a clock (cant grow, universe=incomparable, have no knowledge of the world, the two things are too different= can't be compared) -alternative explanation=epicurean thesis - argument from cause and effect
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What's Hume's epicurean thesis?
explanation for order and precision, puts forward the probability of infinite time= every particle goes through every possible combination to make stable order e.g. laws of nature= no necessity to infer a designer= could be random chance
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What's Hume's argument from cause and effect?
The idea that we can't go from what we know to what we don't know e.g. set of kitchen scales, don't know whats caused one pan to be in the air by looking at the effect (know one pan is heavier even though the content is hidden from our view
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What are Mill's criticisms to the teleological argument?
That nature is evil= the cruelest thing a human can do is deprive someone from their livelihood or take a life (nature does both daily)= states nature is created in opposition to humans=nature is evil=the designer is evil. flawed universe= flawed god
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What are the criticisms for Mill's concept of nature?
-evil and suffering could be a test=that does us good -nature could be used as a tool for punishment and sins -cosmic fine turning=if the big bang was slightly different it wouldn't have created the universe= far too accurate
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How does Paley come back to Mill's criticisms?
rejects this point as he states that he was only concerned with the universe showing evidence of design not quality= evil has some benefits so god can still be good
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Card 2

Front

What are the weaknesses of the teleological argument?

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-universe is unique=can't comment on the cause of a unique universe -weak analogy -imperfect world, why is the world imperfect=flawed god -evolution -a posterori= probable conclusion

Card 3

Front

What was F.R Tennant's supporting argument for the teleological argument?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the weak anthropic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the strong anthropic?

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