• Created by: HelenD6
  • Created on: 30-11-16 14:50
different ways of using the same form
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hypotheticals (have two clauses - modal + if)
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Bare Infinitive
an Infinitive without 'to'
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person or thing(s) that perform the action
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Deductive approach
rules --> language (in teaching)
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Inductive approach
language --> rules (in teaching)
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repeating phrases in chorus
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Presentation Practice Production
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Controlled Practice Activities
activities and exercises which focus on selecting the correct form and getting structure and pronunciation right. FOCUS ON ACCURACY
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Freer practice activities
require use of TARGET LANGUAGE. FLUENCY FOCUSED. delayed correction
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Correction Spot
at end of activity or session
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3rd conditional
past conditional (e.g. "If he hadn't gone out that night, he wouldn't have...")
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combined words (e.g. I + would --> I'd)
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Bottom- up processing
(DECODING) the process of building the meaning upwards from the smallest units
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Top-down processing
knowledge and cultural knowledge helping us understand a text
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two letters that together represent a single sound e.g. 'sh' = / /
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3 or more letters that commonly form part of a word e.g. -ing, -augh
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Intensively (listening)
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Extensively (listening)
just for general understanding
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Interactively (listening)
a response is required from the listener
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Non - interactively (listening)
no response required
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different ways of expressing the same function
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Anaphoric reference
referring back to something that has already been mentioned (e.g. "Sue --> her")
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Cataphoric reference
referring to something before it has been mentioned (e.g. "She --> Maria")
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Exophoric reference
referring out of text (e.g. "they" = the population of Chester)
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Relative pronouns
used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun (whom, which, who, that, those)
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Relative adverbs
replace a preposition. Act like relative pronouns. (when, where)
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Grammatical cohesion
different types of referencing creating cohesion
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Lexical cohesion
different lexis creating cohesion. feature, Not device.
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Process writing
prepare piece in lesson, set for homework
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Natural Method
Features: Classroom conduct only taught in TARGET LANGUAGE. Only everyday vocabulary taught. Oral developed through Q&A and intense classes. Grammar taught inductively. New teaching parts introduced orally. Concrete vocab introduced with pictures.
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adapted from army method. Intensive contact with foreign. No explicit language grammar teaching. listen & repeat methodology. Language properly graded
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Situational English
students should hear before they see. New language introduced through situations (no L1 use). simple --> complex grammar. Students don't start with reading or writing in L2 until basic knowledge of vocab and grammar
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Communication Approach/ CLT
Primary goal is communicative competence (= the ability to successfully communicate and understand messages in TARGET LANGUAGE.
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Natural approach, Humanistic Approaches (HA)
No 'silent period.'(acquiring but not producing knowledge) 1970s
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(HA) TPR/ Total Physical Response
only for early stages of L2 learning. Students taught through obeyed imperatives
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(HA) The Silent Way
Strong emphasis on pronunciation. Student almost always silent
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(HA) Community Language Learning/ CLL
counselling circle. Chinese whispers-style approach
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(HA) Suggestopedia
positive suggestion (No inhibition) Students ned to feel totally relaxed. Music = teacher reading + students translating. not very effective
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Recent Approaches (RA) Lexical approaches
syllabus organised according to vocabulary.
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Lexical phrases
sentence frames, collocations etc.
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a body of linguistic examples of collocations
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concordancers (RA)
programs which analyse the corpus
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Dogme (RA)
rejects course books and grammar teaching. lessons based around what students produce.
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Computer Assisted Learning
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Common European Framework of Reference
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English for speakers of Other Languages
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English as a Second Language
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International English Language Testing System --> general and academic training --> 4 papers X/9 score
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English for Specific Purposes
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English for Academic Purposes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




hypotheticals (have two clauses - modal + if)

Card 3


Bare Infinitive


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Deductive approach


Preview of the front of card 5
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