Tectonics Key Words

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  • Created by: laurace_
  • Created on: 02-04-18 16:36
Constructive / Divergent Boundary
When two plates move in opposite directions allowing magma to rise up, forming ridges and volcanoes e.g the Eurasian and N. American plate
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Transform / Conservative Boundary
When two plate move alongside each other in opposite direction, causing friction which can lead to major earthquakes e.g. San Andreas fault
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Destructive / Convergent Boundary
When the denser oceanic crust is subducted underneath the continental crust as the plates collide, this also creates friction and earthquakes as well as volcanoes e.g. Nazca and S. American Plates
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Collision / Continental-convergent Boundary
When two continental crust collide of equal/similar density they pressure forces the crust upwards forming fold mountains, also causes friction and earthquakes e.g Himalayas between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate
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Hot spots
Areas with up-welling magma plumes, sometimes not along plate boundaries, the plumes rises to the lithosphere creating partial melting of the crust which forms volcanoes and volcanic islands e.g. Hawaii
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Palaeomagnetism
The iron particles in basaltic lava orientate towards magnetic north as they solidify
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Polar wandering
As the magnetism of the north and south poles move and switch over geological time, the orientation of solidified lava alters, creating stripes of opposing magma orientations along the ocean floor this supports the theory of continental drift.
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Lithosphere
The earth's crust and upper section of the mantle (not apart of the asthenosphere)
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Asthenosphere
The upper part of the mantle that is molten
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Mesosphere
The lower solid part of the mantel
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Sial
The composition of rocks with high volumes of silicon and aluminium e.g Continental crusts
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Sima
The composition of rocks with high volumes of magnesium silicates e.g. Oceanic crusts
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Basaltic Lava
A basic (more alkaline) lava with lower silica content, very hot and runny. Found at constructive boundaries and hot spots (shield volcanoes)
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Rhyolitic Lava
A more acidic lava with a higher silica content and viscosity, isn't as hot as basaltic lava. Found at destructive boundaries and composite volcanoes.
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P waves
Primary waves, the fastest type of seismic waves that move through solids and fluids with a compression movement (push and pull)
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S waves
Secondary waves, slower because they only move through solid rock, moving in an up and down, side to side motion
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Rayleigh waves
They move along the surface with a rolling motion in the direction of the wave and are responsible for the majority of the shaking in an earthquake
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Love waves
The fastest surface wave that moves the ground from side to side, they are usually the most destructive
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Liquefaction
When water-saturated material temporarily loses its strength and starts to behave like a liquid due to the strong shaking of the ground in an earthquake causing the water pressure to increase
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Fault unzipping
When a fault line ruptures in one place putting pressure on an area further down the fault leading to a series of earthquakes along the same fault
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Triggered earthquakes
When a major earthquake puts pressure on a neighboring fault causing it to rupture.
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Richter scale
A logarithmic scale of measurement for earthquakes that factors strength and magnitude (1-10)
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Mercalli scale
Measures the damage and impact of earthquakes (in roman numerals from I - XII)
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Moment magnitude scale (MMS)
Measures the energy released in earthquakes, on a scale of 1-10 each level indicates a x32 increase in energy from the previous one.
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Volcanic explosivity index
Measures the volume of tephra erupted from a volcano. Basalt eruptions are measured on a scale of 0-3 and Andesite ones from 4-7
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Jokulhlaup
When a volcanic eruption occurs underneath the surface of a glacier, and melts the ice causing mega flash floods.
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Lahars
Mudflows caused by saturated soil or debris mixing with rainfall or the busting of a crater lake in an eruption. They can flow very quickly and the solidify to cover entire vilages
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Disaster
An event with 500+ deaths
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Mega- disaster
When an event causes 2,000+ deaths, or leaves 200,000+ homeless, or GDP is reduced by 5%+, or there is a dependence on international aid for more than a year afterwards
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Hazard Vulnerability
The capacity of a person or group of people to anticipate, cope with, resist or recover from the impact of a natural disaster
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Nexus
A connection or a series of connection linking two or more things
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Short term aid
Usually financial help from other countries of NGO's, helps with immediate effects but not long term repairs
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Tied aid
When countries give money or resources but with conditions of pay back attached, e.g. having to buy certain goods from that country in future.
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Bilateral aid
From one country to another
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Multilateral aid
Aid from organisations made up of multiple payers/countries e.g EU or UN
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When two plate move alongside each other in opposite direction, causing friction which can lead to major earthquakes e.g. San Andreas fault

Back

Transform / Conservative Boundary

Card 3

Front

When the denser oceanic crust is subducted underneath the continental crust as the plates collide, this also creates friction and earthquakes as well as volcanoes e.g. Nazca and S. American Plates

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When two continental crust collide of equal/similar density they pressure forces the crust upwards forming fold mountains, also causes friction and earthquakes e.g Himalayas between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Areas with up-welling magma plumes, sometimes not along plate boundaries, the plumes rises to the lithosphere creating partial melting of the crust which forms volcanoes and volcanic islands e.g. Hawaii

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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