Tectonic Activity and Hazards

Define a 'tectonic hazard'
physical occurrence resulting from movement of earth's crust that has potential to cause loss of like and damage to property
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when does a tectonic hazard become a disaster?
when we experience the 'realisation of the hazard' Smith 1996 - extreme events that create severe disruption
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Name the primary effects of Earthquakes
effects due directly to the quake itself - body waves (S and P waves) and surface waves (Rayleigh and Long waves)
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Name the secondary effects of Earthquakes
Hazards triggered off by the hazard by itself - soil liquefaction, landslides, tsunami, fire, flooding - from dams collapse
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Name the 5 categories for classifying tectonic hazard
Geographical processes, spatial distribution, Duration/nature of impact & warning time, Magnitude & frequency and specific processes in the lithosphere causing the activity
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what can be used to give an overall physical picture of a hazardous event?
A hazard profile: Magnitude, Speed of onset, duration, areal extent, spatial reliability, frequency.
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What is the state/temperature/thickness of the inner core?
Solid at 5000-7000 degrees and up to 1100 km
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Which is the thickest layer of the Earth?
Lower Mantle
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what is the upper mantle called?
Asthenosphere - this is what the plates lie on top of
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Name the two rocks that make up the Earth's crust
Basalt and Granite
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What is the most likely cause of plate movement?
Convection cell currents in the asthenosphere (upper mantle)
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What is it called when plates move apart?
Continental Drift
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What are constructive margins also known as?
Divergent e.g. Mid-Atlantic ridge/African Rift Valley
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What is the better term for Convergent margins?
Destructive/Collision boundaries
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Give an example of a conservative margin
San Andreas Fault - activity between North American and Pacific plates
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What are Intrusive Landforms?
formed by magma rising towards surface but cooling/solidifying before extruding the surface
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Why do intrusive landforms occur?
Magma is rising slowly, there is great thickness of crust to pass through, there are a few weaknesses in the crust through which magma can flow easily e.g. a Batholith/Dyke/Sill (Isle of Arran)
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What are extrusive landforms?
the outpouring of material from the Earth's crust produces landforms on the surface
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Name examples of extrusive igneous landforms/activities
Fissures, Volcanoes, Geysers, Fumaroles, volcano cones, Lava Plateau (case study - The Deccan)
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what three things affect viscosity of magma?
Temperature, Silica content and volume of dissolved gases
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Name the three types of magma
Basaltic, Andesitic, Rhyolitic
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Why do people live in tectonically active areas?
Ignorance, Inertia, Choice.
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what is a Rift valley?
an elongated trough with steep walls formed by the downward displacement of a block of the earth's surface between parallel faults - formed at divergence/constructive margins
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Name the 4 phases of the Park Response Curve
Pre-disaster, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
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What are fold mountains?
occur at a collision/destructive boundary - forces rocks upwards into a series of folds
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Name and briefly explain the 5 different types of folds
Monocline: two horizontal limbs connected by a shorter inclined limb Anticline: strata sloping downwards on each side forming a crest Syncline: downward fold younger layers closer to centre Overturned: bed dips to on... also Overthrust
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Card 2

Front

when does a tectonic hazard become a disaster?

Back

when we experience the 'realisation of the hazard' Smith 1996 - extreme events that create severe disruption

Card 3

Front

Name the primary effects of Earthquakes

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the secondary effects of Earthquakes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the 5 categories for classifying tectonic hazard

Back

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