Tectonic Processes and Hazards Key Words (from Hodder Eduction revision guide)

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MANTLE
A solid, but because of very high temperatures it is deformable (plastic) and can 'flow' very slowly
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MANTLE PLUMES
Concentrated areas of heat convection. At plate boundaries they are sheet-like, at hot spots they are column-like
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SUBDUCTION
The process of one plate sinking beneath another at a convergent plate boundary (oceanic under continental)
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FOCUS
The point underground at which the earthquake originates - a pulse of energy radiates out from here
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EPICENTRE
The point on the surface directly above the focus
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PYROCLASTS
Rock fragments ejected from a volcano (ash, tephra and volcanic bombs)
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THRESHOLD
The magnitude above which a disaster occurs. Could be different in developed vs. developing countries due to different levels of resilience
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RESILIENCE
The ability of a community to cope with a hazard; some are better prepared than others so a hazards is less likely to become a disaster
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MEGADISASTER
A disaster with unusually high impacts. Millie's of people affected and billions of dollars in damage over a wide area
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SUPERVOLCANO
Impacts would be felt globally, because of worldwide cooling of the Earth's climate, perhaps for up to five years
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LIQUEFACTION
Occurs in waterlogged, loose sediment; earthquake shaking 'liquefies' the ground, causing buildings to tilt, sink and collapse
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AFTERSHOCKS
Occur in the hours, days or months after a primary earthquake and can be of high magnitude and frequency
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CORRUPTION
Illegal practices e.g. accepting bribes to influence decision making or paying people to stay silent about known problems
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LAND-USE ZONING
Planning tool used to decide what type of buildings (residential, commercial, industrial or none) are allowed in particular locations
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MULTIPLE HAZARD ZONES
Places where two or more natural hazards occur, in some cases these interact to create complex disasters
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PREDICTION
Knowing when and where a natural hazard will strike on a spatial and temporal scale that can be acted on meaningfully in terms of evacuation
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FORECASTING
Much less precise that predicting, provides a 'percentage chance' of a hazard occurring at a certain level within a time frame
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HAZARD RESISTANT DESIGN
Constructing buildings and infrastructure that are strong enough to resist tectonic hazards
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CRY WOLF SYNDROME
When predictions (and evacuation) prove to be wrong, so people are less likely to believe the next predictions and warning
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Concentrated areas of heat convection. At plate boundaries they are sheet-like, at hot spots they are column-like

Back

MANTLE PLUMES

Card 3

Front

The process of one plate sinking beneath another at a convergent plate boundary (oceanic under continental)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The point underground at which the earthquake originates - a pulse of energy radiates out from here

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The point on the surface directly above the focus

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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