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6. Which of these is a major reason for forgetting memories in LTM?

  • Retrieval failure
  • Lack of attention
  • Similar co-occuring information
  • Overload of information due to large capacity

7. What is proactive interference

  • When concious processes such as speech interfere with the recall of information
  • The tendency for previously learned recall to disrupt the recall of new information
  • Interference caused by external stimuli e.g/ a loud sound
  • The tendency for new information to disrupt the recall of previously learned information

8. Define temporary modality-specific storage

  • The duration of memories in storage (STM limited, LTM infinite)
  • A basic property of sensory memory, each sense has a seperate store (iconic, haptic etc.)
  • How long memories stay in sensory memory (a fraction of a second)
  • Another word for Short term memory (STM)

9. What did the case study of HM show?

  • That STM and LTM can be damaged independently
  • Different brain regions are important for memory, of which there are different types
  • Evidence for anterograde amnesia
  • Evidence for retrograde amnesia

10. What is the serial position effect?

  • Items with a longer digit length are hardest to recall from a list due to the capacity of STM
  • It is easier to recall info at the start as first items are studied the most
  • It is hardest to recall items from the middle of the list, due to primacy and recency effects
  • It is easier to recall items from the end as they were last studied

11. What are the two types of LTM?

  • Explicit memory (factual knowledge + personal exp.) and Implicit memory (Long term memories of conditioned responses+learned skills
  • Episodic memory (impersonal facts and everyday knowledge), Semantic memory (Personal experiences linked with specific times and places)
  • Explicit memory (Long term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills), Implicit memory (factual knowledge and personal experiences)
  • Semantic memory (impersonal facts and everyday knowledge), Episodic memory (Personal experiences linked with specific times and places)