TB4 Lecture 4; Decision making and the brain

The main objectives in this lecture are;

  • Expected value v.s expected utility
  • Reward and the brain
  • Temporal discounting
  • Social decision making
  • Heuristics in decision making
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  • Created by: mint75
  • Created on: 25-05-15 17:59

1. What is the framing effect?

  • People tend to avoid risk when a positive frame is presented, but sees risk more when a negative frame is presented (even when options are the same! For example saving people, or killing people in vaccine example).
  • People tend to avoid risk when a negative frame is presented, but sees risk more when a positive frame is presented (even when options are the same! For example saving people, or killing people in vaccine example).
  • When the objective value exceeds that of the expected utility
  • When the expected utility exceeds the objective value
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Other questions in this quiz

2. What have results from neural studies into temporal discounting shown in general?

  • Experiments are generally methodologically weak and empirically untestable and so no conclusions can be drawn
  • Mixed results. Either evidence for a dual-process system which processes SS or LL rewards, or a SINGLE neural process that tracks subjective value of reward regardless of delay
  • Inconclusive evidence and no conclusions can be drawn
  • Overwhelming evidenc for a dual-process model with a process for SS and LL rewards

3. What is a problem with heuristics?

  • They mean that humans do not use deductive reasoning as much as possible
  • Although helpful, they are error prone and susceptible to biases
  • The make humans into cold logic machines
  • Can be changed by mental imagery

4. Which areas seem to be implicated in immediate smaller-sooner (SS) rewards?

  • Putamen, mPFC, VStr
  • Posterior cingulate (PCC), mPFC, VStr
  • DLpFC, LOBFC
  • DLpFC, LOBFC, VStr

5. What is loss aversion?

  • Perceiving probability in a highly subjective manner, overestimating the chances of low probability events, and underestimating high ones
  • The tendency for people to strongly acquiring gains than avoiding loss
  • The tendency for people to strongly prefer avoiding loss than acquiring gains
  • The tendency for compulsive gambling to start after a traumatic loss type event

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