Back to quiz

6. Which is the last brain area to stop growing?

  • The cortex
  • The prefrontal cortex
  • The limbic system
  • The cerebral cortex

7. What effect does an enriched environment have on the cerebral cortex?

  • It causes the cortical neurons to thicken as the infant is exposed to more sights and sounds.
  • The cerebral cortex increases in width with age allowing the infant to absorb more information
  • Aids in developing muscle tone and balance
  • Aids in developing the infants vision and attention management

8. What fatty layer covers the axon of the neuron?

  • Axon Sheath
  • Soma
  • Myelin Sheath
  • Dendrites

9. What is apoptosis and why does it occur?

  • Buildings of connections between synapses to 'finely tune' the brains 'circuitry'
  • Programmed cell death of poorly stimulated neurons; increases efficiency of functioning
  • The formation of sulci and gyri to accommodate more neurons
  • Increase of brain surface; to increase cell stimulation

10. Which two areas are the first to develop?

  • Medulla and forebrain
  • Brainstem (hindbrain) and midbrain
  • Cerebral cortex and Brainstem (Hindbrain)
  • Midbrain and forebrain

11. What did research by Perry & Pollard (1998) show?

  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had smaller brains than controls
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had much smaller frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had much larger frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had larger brains than controls

12. What are the three stages (in order) of cellular development

  • Synaptogenesis, Myelinisation, Cell migration
  • Proliferation, cell migration, myelinisation
  • Myelinisation, Cell migration, proliferation
  • Synaptogenesis, Cell migration, proliferation

13. When does brain growth begin in utero?

  • 6 months
  • 8 months
  • 18 days
  • 14 days

14. What is a teratogen?

  • A chemical imbalance in the pregnant body which goes on to affect the infant
  • Substances that exert an adverse influence on development e.g drugs, smoking, disease and maternal stress
  • Substances that exert a positive influence on development e.g enriched environment, nutrition and exercise
  • A genetic mutation in the mother which causes future disabilitys and birth complications in the infant

15. As the cortex grows, what happens to the brain?

  • Infolding to accommodate rapid growth
  • Synaptic pruning
  • Synaptogenesis occurs
  • Vesicles develop

16. What are the main characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome?

  • CNS issues (e.g learning/behaviourla disorders), Growth retardation emotional disturbances and
  • Physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia), growth retardation and CNS difficulties
  • Growth retardation (e.g low birth weight) and balance and hearing issues
  • Small hippo-campus and other physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia)

17. What effects does the environment have on the prenatal brain?

  • The PN brain is especially sensitive to positive environmental influences affecting cortical thickness
  • The environment has not shown to have an effect on the PN brain
  • The PN brain is sensitive to negative and positive influences, with cortical thickness differing according to the environment
  • The PN brain is especially sensitive to negative environmental influences affecting cortical thickness

18. What is an early behavioural reflex?

  • A movement to attract attention
  • An involuntary reaction to external stimuli
  • A voluntary reaction to a stimuli
  • A type of infant feeding behaviour

19. What does the process of myelinisation do/improve?

  • Insulates the cell and improves synaptogenesis (cell communication)
  • Adds to the weight of the total brain
  • Allows cells to acquire specialised functions
  • Produces nerve cells at a rate of 250,000pm

20. What is the 'moro' reflex?

  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions
  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex