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6. Which is the last brain area to stop growing?
- The cortex
- The prefrontal cortex
- The limbic system
- The cerebral cortex
7. What effect does an enriched environment have on the cerebral cortex?
- It causes the cortical neurons to thicken as the infant is exposed to more sights and sounds.
- The cerebral cortex increases in width with age allowing the infant to absorb more information
- Aids in developing muscle tone and balance
- Aids in developing the infants vision and attention management
8. What fatty layer covers the axon of the neuron?
- Axon Sheath
- Myelin Sheath
9. What is apoptosis and why does it occur?
- Buildings of connections between synapses to 'finely tune' the brains 'circuitry'
- Programmed cell death of poorly stimulated neurons; increases efficiency of functioning
- The formation of sulci and gyri to accommodate more neurons
- Increase of brain surface; to increase cell stimulation
10. Which two areas are the first to develop?
- Medulla and forebrain
- Brainstem (hindbrain) and midbrain
- Cerebral cortex and Brainstem (Hindbrain)
- Midbrain and forebrain
11. What did research by Perry & Pollard (1998) show?
- The children who suffered severe global neglect had smaller brains than controls
- The children who suffered severe global neglect had much smaller frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
- The children who suffered severe global neglect had much larger frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
- The children who suffered severe global neglect had larger brains than controls
12. What are the three stages (in order) of cellular development
- Synaptogenesis, Myelinisation, Cell migration
- Proliferation, cell migration, myelinisation
- Myelinisation, Cell migration, proliferation
- Synaptogenesis, Cell migration, proliferation
13. When does brain growth begin in utero?
- 6 months
- 8 months
- 18 days
- 14 days
14. What is a teratogen?
- A chemical imbalance in the pregnant body which goes on to affect the infant
- Substances that exert an adverse influence on development e.g drugs, smoking, disease and maternal stress
- Substances that exert a positive influence on development e.g enriched environment, nutrition and exercise
- A genetic mutation in the mother which causes future disabilitys and birth complications in the infant
15. As the cortex grows, what happens to the brain?
- Infolding to accommodate rapid growth
- Synaptic pruning
- Synaptogenesis occurs
- Vesicles develop
16. What are the main characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome?
- CNS issues (e.g learning/behaviourla disorders), Growth retardation emotional disturbances and
- Physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia), growth retardation and CNS difficulties
- Growth retardation (e.g low birth weight) and balance and hearing issues
- Small hippo-campus and other physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia)
17. What effects does the environment have on the prenatal brain?
- The PN brain is especially sensitive to positive environmental influences affecting cortical thickness
- The environment has not shown to have an effect on the PN brain
- The PN brain is sensitive to negative and positive influences, with cortical thickness differing according to the environment
- The PN brain is especially sensitive to negative environmental influences affecting cortical thickness
18. What is an early behavioural reflex?
- A movement to attract attention
- An involuntary reaction to external stimuli
- A voluntary reaction to a stimuli
- A type of infant feeding behaviour
19. What does the process of myelinisation do/improve?
- Insulates the cell and improves synaptogenesis (cell communication)
- Adds to the weight of the total brain
- Allows cells to acquire specialised functions
- Produces nerve cells at a rate of 250,000pm
20. What is the 'moro' reflex?
- When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
- When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
- When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions
- When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex