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6. What is the second stage of brain development?

  • The formation of the hindbrain
  • Neurogenesis and cell migration
  • Folding of the neural plate to form the neural tube
  • Cell insulation

7. What is the darwinian reflex?

  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex

8. When does brain growth begin in utero?

  • 8 months
  • 18 days
  • 6 months
  • 14 days

9. As the cortex grows, what happens to the brain?

  • Synaptogenesis occurs
  • Infolding to accommodate rapid growth
  • Synaptic pruning
  • Vesicles develop

10. Which two areas govern autonomic functions as well as reflexes

  • Brainstem and midbrain
  • Cerebral cortex and Spinal cord
  • Spinal cord and midbrain
  • Automatic nervous system and medulla

11. Which two areas are the first to develop?

  • Cerebral cortex and Brainstem (Hindbrain)
  • Brainstem (hindbrain) and midbrain
  • Midbrain and forebrain
  • Medulla and forebrain

12. What fatty layer covers the axon of the neuron?

  • Axon Sheath
  • Soma
  • Myelin Sheath
  • Dendrites

13. What stage of pregnancy were women most vunerable to radiation?

  • 8 - 16 weeks
  • 1 month
  • 16 - 24 weeks
  • 4 months

14. What are the three stages (in order) of cellular development

  • Synaptogenesis, Cell migration, proliferation
  • Proliferation, cell migration, myelinisation
  • Synaptogenesis, Myelinisation, Cell migration
  • Myelinisation, Cell migration, proliferation

15. What is apoptosis and why does it occur?

  • Programmed cell death of poorly stimulated neurons; increases efficiency of functioning
  • Buildings of connections between synapses to 'finely tune' the brains 'circuitry'
  • Increase of brain surface; to increase cell stimulation
  • The formation of sulci and gyri to accommodate more neurons

16. What is an early behavioural reflex?

  • An involuntary reaction to external stimuli
  • A type of infant feeding behaviour
  • A voluntary reaction to a stimuli
  • A movement to attract attention

17. What is the role of the limbic system?

  • Regulating emotions and frontal lobes for advanced cognitive functioning
  • Processing auditory and visual stimuli
  • Abstract thought
  • Reflexes and responses to stress

18. What is the 'moro' reflex?

  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions
  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex

19. What is a teratogen?

  • Substances that exert an adverse influence on development e.g drugs, smoking, disease and maternal stress
  • A genetic mutation in the mother which causes future disabilitys and birth complications in the infant
  • Substances that exert a positive influence on development e.g enriched environment, nutrition and exercise
  • A chemical imbalance in the pregnant body which goes on to affect the infant

20. Why is the pregnant person most sensitive to radiation at this time?

  • This is the critical period of prenatal brain development, with neural proliferation and migration, migration not occuring correctly has serious effects
  • As the infants developing brain is at peak plasticity
  • As this is the period in which synaptogenesis occurs