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6. When does brain growth begin in utero?

  • 6 months
  • 18 days
  • 14 days
  • 8 months

7. What effect does an enriched environment have on the cerebral cortex?

  • The cerebral cortex increases in width with age allowing the infant to absorb more information
  • Aids in developing muscle tone and balance
  • It causes the cortical neurons to thicken as the infant is exposed to more sights and sounds.
  • Aids in developing the infants vision and attention management

8. What is a teratogen?

  • A genetic mutation in the mother which causes future disabilitys and birth complications in the infant
  • Substances that exert a positive influence on development e.g enriched environment, nutrition and exercise
  • Substances that exert an adverse influence on development e.g drugs, smoking, disease and maternal stress
  • A chemical imbalance in the pregnant body which goes on to affect the infant

9. What is the 'moro' reflex?

  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions

10. What are the main characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome?

  • Small hippo-campus and other physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia)
  • Physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia), growth retardation and CNS difficulties
  • CNS issues (e.g learning/behaviourla disorders), Growth retardation emotional disturbances and
  • Growth retardation (e.g low birth weight) and balance and hearing issues

11. What is an early behavioural reflex?

  • A type of infant feeding behaviour
  • An involuntary reaction to external stimuli
  • A movement to attract attention
  • A voluntary reaction to a stimuli

12. Why is the pregnant person most sensitive to radiation at this time?

  • As this is the period in which synaptogenesis occurs
  • This is the critical period of prenatal brain development, with neural proliferation and migration, migration not occuring correctly has serious effects
  • As the infants developing brain is at peak plasticity

13. What did research by Perry & Pollard (1998) show?

  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had smaller brains than controls
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had much smaller frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had much larger frontal occipital circumferences and growth/organisation than conrtols
  • The children who suffered severe global neglect had larger brains than controls

14. Which two areas are the first to develop?

  • Cerebral cortex and Brainstem (Hindbrain)
  • Medulla and forebrain
  • Brainstem (hindbrain) and midbrain
  • Midbrain and forebrain

15. What are the three stages (in order) of cellular development

  • Synaptogenesis, Cell migration, proliferation
  • Proliferation, cell migration, myelinisation
  • Synaptogenesis, Myelinisation, Cell migration
  • Myelinisation, Cell migration, proliferation

16. What is apoptosis and why does it occur?

  • Programmed cell death of poorly stimulated neurons; increases efficiency of functioning
  • Buildings of connections between synapses to 'finely tune' the brains 'circuitry'
  • Increase of brain surface; to increase cell stimulation
  • The formation of sulci and gyri to accommodate more neurons

17. What fatty layer covers the axon of the neuron?

  • Axon Sheath
  • Myelin Sheath
  • Dendrites
  • Soma

18. What is the role of the limbic system?

  • Regulating emotions and frontal lobes for advanced cognitive functioning
  • Abstract thought
  • Reflexes and responses to stress
  • Processing auditory and visual stimuli

19. What is the second stage of brain development?

  • The formation of the hindbrain
  • Neurogenesis and cell migration
  • Folding of the neural plate to form the neural tube
  • Cell insulation

20. What is the darwinian reflex?

  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex