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6. What is the role of the limbic system?

  • Processing auditory and visual stimuli
  • Abstract thought
  • Regulating emotions and frontal lobes for advanced cognitive functioning
  • Reflexes and responses to stress

7. What effect does an enriched environment have on the cerebral cortex?

  • The cerebral cortex increases in width with age allowing the infant to absorb more information
  • It causes the cortical neurons to thicken as the infant is exposed to more sights and sounds.
  • Aids in developing the infants vision and attention management
  • Aids in developing muscle tone and balance

8. What is the second stage of brain development?

  • Neurogenesis and cell migration
  • Cell insulation
  • Folding of the neural plate to form the neural tube
  • The formation of the hindbrain

9. What effects does the environment have on the prenatal brain?

  • The environment has not shown to have an effect on the PN brain
  • The PN brain is especially sensitive to negative environmental influences affecting cortical thickness
  • The PN brain is sensitive to negative and positive influences, with cortical thickness differing according to the environment
  • The PN brain is especially sensitive to positive environmental influences affecting cortical thickness

10. What is the 'moro' reflex?

  • When a baby will grab anything that comes in close proximity to their face, a protective reflex
  • When the palm of a babies hand is stroked, they make a strong fist and can be raised to standing if grasped
  • When a baby is dropped/hears a loud noise, they extend limbs and fingers whilst drawing their head back as a protective reflex
  • When a baby is held with their feet barely touching a surface, they will make stepping motions

11. When does brain growth begin in utero?

  • 8 months
  • 14 days
  • 18 days
  • 6 months

12. What is apoptosis and why does it occur?

  • The formation of sulci and gyri to accommodate more neurons
  • Programmed cell death of poorly stimulated neurons; increases efficiency of functioning
  • Increase of brain surface; to increase cell stimulation
  • Buildings of connections between synapses to 'finely tune' the brains 'circuitry'

13. What fatty layer covers the axon of the neuron?

  • Dendrites
  • Myelin Sheath
  • Soma
  • Axon Sheath

14. What are the main characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome?

  • Physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia), growth retardation and CNS difficulties
  • Growth retardation (e.g low birth weight) and balance and hearing issues
  • CNS issues (e.g learning/behaviourla disorders), Growth retardation emotional disturbances and
  • Small hippo-campus and other physical defects (e.g flat midface, microcephaly, micrognathia)

15. Which is the last brain area to stop growing?

  • The prefrontal cortex
  • The cortex
  • The cerebral cortex
  • The limbic system

16. Which two areas are the first to develop?

  • Cerebral cortex and Brainstem (Hindbrain)
  • Medulla and forebrain
  • Brainstem (hindbrain) and midbrain
  • Midbrain and forebrain

17. What are the three stages (in order) of cellular development

  • Synaptogenesis, Cell migration, proliferation
  • Proliferation, cell migration, myelinisation
  • Synaptogenesis, Myelinisation, Cell migration
  • Myelinisation, Cell migration, proliferation

18. As the cortex grows, what happens to the brain?

  • Infolding to accommodate rapid growth
  • Vesicles develop
  • Synaptic pruning
  • Synaptogenesis occurs

19. What stage of pregnancy were women most vunerable to radiation?

  • 1 month
  • 16 - 24 weeks
  • 8 - 16 weeks
  • 4 months

20. Why is the pregnant person most sensitive to radiation at this time?

  • As this is the period in which synaptogenesis occurs
  • This is the critical period of prenatal brain development, with neural proliferation and migration, migration not occuring correctly has serious effects
  • As the infants developing brain is at peak plasticity