Systems III and Homeostasis

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  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 05-04-18 15:14
What volume of urine is produced per minute?
1 mL per minute
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What is the average age at which women undergoes the menopause?
48-55 years
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Are there any examples of a positive feedback mechanism?
Production of oxytocin causes the uterus to contract (child birth)
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What are the functions of the urinary system?
Filters blood, reabsorbs water/salts, secretes hormones (adrenaline), excretes waste products (main source of nitrogen excretion)
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What are the features of the kidney?
Cortex, medulla, pyramid, pelvis, columns of Bertin, ureter, calyx, papilla - filters waste from blood and produces urine (removal of nitrogen - urea)
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Outline the macrostructure of the kidney
Blood enters afferent arteriole (narrow/high hydrostatic pressure/fast flow) into glomerulus (filtration, Bowman's capsule), through efferent arteriole (wide), glucose reabsorption in PCT, water reabsorbed (ADH) in loop of Henle (a/d)/ DCT
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Why is urine production low?
Large blood flow through kidney (25% of cardiac output) - 625 mLs/min enters afferent arteriole and 624 mLs/min returns to the renal vein (1 mL of urine produced per minute)
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What is the function of the ureter?
To transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder (has the same type of epithelia as bladder)
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What type of epithelia is present in both the ureter and the bladder?
Transitional epithelia - cells not lined up, stretch/maintain cell-cell contact, force dissipates in different directions to reduce chance of damage)
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Describe features of the bladder
Storage of urine, male/female bladders slightly differ (presence of prostate in men), double sphincter
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Describe features of the urethra
Carries urine from urinary bladder to outside of the body. Shorter in females than males (more susceptible to infection)
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State components of the male reproductive system
Urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, rectum, prostate gland, vas deferens, urethra, testis, glans penis, epididymis, bulbourethral gland
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Describe features of the testes (primary sex organ)
Production of spermatozoa (occurs from puberty continuous until old age), production of testosterone - collecting tubes, epididymis, testicle, scrotum, spermatic cord
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Describe features of the vas deferens and epididymis (accessory sex organs)
Two of each, transfer of spermatozoa from testes, seminal vesicle empties into it, travels through prostate gland
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Describe features of seminal vesicles and prostate gland (accessory sex organs)
Secrete seminal fluid to transport of spermatozoa, two seminal vesicles which empty into the vas deferens, single prostate empties into urethra
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Describe features of the penis (accessory sex organs)
Transfers spermatozoa from male to female, contains erectile tissue which fill with blood to produce erection (facilitate delivery of spermatozoa)
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Describe features of male secondary sex characteristics
Laryngeal changes (deep voice), growth of facial/pubic/axillary hair, receding hair at temples, increase in muscle/skeletal mass (growth spurt/characteristic male shape of body), increase sex drive and aggression, increased sebaceous gland secretion
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What does oversecretion of the sebaceous gland result in?
Acne
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State the components of the female reproductive system
Uterus, cervix, vagina, rectum, fallopian tube, ovary, urethra, labium majora/minora, fundus of uterus, ********, symphysis pubis
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Describe features of the ovary (primary sex organ)
Production of ova (continues from puberty until menopause), production of oestrogen and progesterone
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Describe features of the menstrual cycle
Menstruation (break down lining of uterus), oestrogen/progesterone used to build up lining of uterus, FSH stimulate maturation of ovum, LH stimulate ovulation (with lining of uterus maintained), lining breaks down, cycle starts again (28 days)
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On which day does ovulation take place?
Around day 14
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What is polycystic ovarian syndrome?
Cyst on ovaries which can lead to a burst, could require ovary to be removed
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Describe features of the fallopian tube, uterus and vagina (accessory sex organs)
(Two) fallopian tubes transfer ova from ovaries. Uterus contains nutrition of development of fertilised ovum (resulting in embryo). Vagina is the reception of spermatozoa
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Describe features of the mammary glands (accessory sex organs)
Nutrition of new infant after birth. Suckling promotes retraction of uterus
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Describe the features of female secondary sex characteristics
Development of breasts, characteristic female form/proportions (narrow shoulders/broad hips), androgens from adrenal cortex promote further development (sex drive, pubic/axillary hair)
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What is homeostasis?
Describe the relative constancy of the internal environment of the body - required for the proper functioning of the cells of the body
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What are the body variables which are kept within relatively narrow limits?
Plasma (Na/K/Ca), osmolality, pH, body temperature, plasma oxygen/carbon dioxide levels, arterial blood pressure
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What is negative feedback control?
The change in regulated variable leads to an opposite response (corrects original disturbance), minimises change in regulatory variable/cannot maintain total constancy, needs an error signal to drive system (short/long term-e.g. fever/physiological)
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How is the control of osmolality achieved?
By monitoring body fluid osmotic pressure by hypothalamic osmoreceptors. Changes in secretion of ADH (reduces water loss in kidney). Stimulation or inhibition of thirst and drinking
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Describe features of body temperature
Maintained at 37 degrees Celsius at rest, body exchanges heat with external environment (radiation/conduction/convection, evaporation of water from surface of body
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What controls body temperature?
Hypothalamus and associated structures (posterior pituitary gland), responds to inputs from skin (periphery) and brain (central) thermoreceptors, body temperature regulated by altering heat production/loss (change in total body heat content)
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Describe the responses to cold - when core body temperature falls below 35 degrees Celsius
Vasoconstriction, piloerection, thermogenic shivering, increase in activity (muscles), non-shivering thermogenesis (activation of mitochondrial activity in brown adipose tissue which generates heat)
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Describe the responses to heat
Vasodilation and sweating (evaporation of water from skin surface to reduce temperature)
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Card 2

Front

What is the average age at which women undergoes the menopause?

Back

48-55 years

Card 3

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Are there any examples of a positive feedback mechanism?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the functions of the urinary system?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are the features of the kidney?

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