Systematic Organic Chemistry- Aldehydes and Ketones

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Structure
A hydrogen atom is attached to the carbonyl group in an aldehyde
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Boiling Point
Aldehydes and ketones have higher boiling points than alkanes but lower than alcohols as the intermolecular force joining molecules is permanent dipole to permanent diopole interactions
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Solubility
Molecules of relatively low molecular mass are miscible with water, as they can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, but as chain length increases solubility decreases
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Distinguishing
An aldehyde is readily oxidised so reduces Ag+ ions to Ag atoms in Tollen's reagent and Cu2+ ions to Cu+ ions in Benedicts solution making it go from blue to red/brown
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Identification
Brady's reagent identifies a carbonyl group through the formation of an orange-yellow precipitate and the compounds melting point can be compared to known compounds
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Reduction
Reduces to alcohols catalysed by LiAlH4
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Nucleophilic Addition
Nucleophilic addition with hydrazine to form hydrazones or hydrogen cyanide to form a cyanhydrin
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Reactivity
Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones as the carbonyl group is more polar
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Card 2

Front

Aldehydes and ketones have higher boiling points than alkanes but lower than alcohols as the intermolecular force joining molecules is permanent dipole to permanent diopole interactions

Back

Boiling Point

Card 3

Front

Molecules of relatively low molecular mass are miscible with water, as they can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, but as chain length increases solubility decreases

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An aldehyde is readily oxidised so reduces Ag+ ions to Ag atoms in Tollen's reagent and Cu2+ ions to Cu+ ions in Benedicts solution making it go from blue to red/brown

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Brady's reagent identifies a carbonyl group through the formation of an orange-yellow precipitate and the compounds melting point can be compared to known compounds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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