Synaptic transmission

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What is synaptic transmission related to?
Processing
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What opens when the AP reaches the presynaptic terminal?
Calcium ion channels open
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What is the first fundamental process?
Manufacture - intracellular biochemical processes
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What is the second?
Storage in vesicles
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What is the third?
Release by AP
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The fourth?
Interact with postsynaptic receptors and diffuse across synapse
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The fifth?
Inactivation - breakdown/re-uptake?
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What does ACH stand for and what is it?
Acetylcholine and it is a transmitter substance
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What gates ion channels relating to postsynaptic membrane effects
Transmitters
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What are the channels on the postsynaptic membrane sensitive to?
Neurotransmitter substances
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Name the three fast neurotransmitters
ACH, GLU and GABA
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Name the three neuromodulators
DA, NA, 5HT
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What is Dale's principle?
"each neuron uses a different neurotransmitter"
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Why is Dale's principle not strictly true?
GLU and GABA use different modulators and modulatory systems can use different modulators
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What is an endorphin?
A pepticle with opiate-like effects
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What do endorphins and opiates inhibit?
Substance p, released by pain receptors
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What do local anaestethics such as procaine and lignocaine do?
Block AP and Na+ channels, well absorbed by mucous membranes
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What is ACH affected by?
Nicotine, Spider poison, poison from arrows (curare) and nerve gas
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Which things that affect ACH are agonists?
Nicotine and arrow poison (curare)
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Which affects release?
Spider Poison
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How does nerve gas effect ACH?
Blocks breakdown
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Where is ACH widely used?
Brain and spinal chord
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Where does noradrenaline act as a transmitter?
CNS AND PNS
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How do stimulants effect it?
Increase release and blocks re-uptake
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How do MAO inhibitors effect it?
Block release
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How do anti-depressants effect it?
Block re-uptake
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What is dopamine important in?
Basal ganglia
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How do anti-psychotics affect it?
Acts as receptor blocker
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How do amphetamines/cocaine effect it?
increase release and block re-uptake
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How do anti-parkison's drugs e.g. L-DOPA effect it?
Increase manufacture
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What is the function of serotonin?
Diverging projection in brain and supplies structure
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How do SSRI's affect it?
Effect reuptake
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What does SSRI stand for?
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor
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How does MDMA effect it?
Suggestions that it may be neurotoxic
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How may hallucinogens e.g. LSD effect it?
They act as a receptor agonist
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Why does L-DOPA work for Parkinson's disease?
Blocks release of dopamine
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What is GABA?
Main inhibitory transmitter
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Which two types of drugs have inhibitory effects at GABA receptors?
anti-convulsants and anti-anxiety (benzodiazepenes and valium)
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Which type of drugs potentiate GABA effects?
Anaesthetics and barbiturates
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What is the main problem for drug design?
Brain region for different function uses many different neurotransmitters, leads to side effects
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What can L-DOPA cause in high doses?
Psychosis
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What can DA blockers or antipsychotics cause in high doses
Parkinson's
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What opens when the AP reaches the presynaptic terminal?

Back

Calcium ion channels open

Card 3

Front

What is the first fundamental process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the second?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the third?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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